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PSY290H5 Final: Psych 290 Exam Review

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Brett Beston

Psych 290 Exam Review: After Test 2 Hormones and Sex Berthold’s Experiment Demonstrated the Importance of Hormones for Behaviour  Removal and reimplantation of testes in roosters and analyzed behaviour  Those who had testes removed completely did not develop properly and acted differently  Those who had testes reimplanted into abdominal cavity acted and developed as if the testes were in the original place The Endocrine System  The link between the brain and organs that control the body’s metabolism, growth, development and reproduction  Uses hormones as a mode of communication o Hormones: chemical messengers that are released into bloodstream or tissue fluid affect target cells some distance away o Strongly influence behaviour and activity o Similar to neurotransmitters but slower Three Major Classes of Hormones  Protein and Peptides: chains of amino acids o Many use secondary receptors  Monoamies: small simple chemicals o Fight or flight hormones  Steroids: derived from cholesterol o Slower longer effecting hormones o Can easily pass through cell membrane o Can bind with receptor complexes altering DNA which is why they can take so long to affect an individual o EX: testosterone: healing agent  When you exercise you damage your muscles and testosterone induces faster healing leading to better performance  Hormones may have different effects on each target, and act to coordinate different parts of the body  One hormone may cause a response in more than one type of receptor  One target organ may respond to several hormones. EX: brain  Hormones can exert a variety of effects based on the receptors they bind with  Tropic hormones influence the release of hormones by other glands Hormone Production in the Pituitary  Master Gland  Posterior pituitary: hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus  Anterior pituitary: tropic hormones o Controlled by hypothalamus  Pituitary Stock: connects the pituitary to the rest of the brain o Communicates with the brain through the hypothalamus o Regulates and over sees all the hormonal action in the brain o Connects pituitary and hypothalamus Cyclic vs. Steady Gonadal Hormone Levels  Female hormones go through a 28-day cycle: menstrual cycle  Male hormone levels are constant (kind of) o Men cycle daily  Hypothalamus determines whether hormone levels cycle Endocrine Gland Secretes Specific Hormones  Hypo controls pituitary  pituitary controls fluctuations in hormones  Neuroendocrine cells: specialized neurons that release hormones into the blood o Do not connect to other neurons but to blood supplies (veins, capillaries) o Interface between neurons and endocrine glands o Posterior pituitary gland releases two hormones into the blood stream  Vassopressin: promotes water conservation and increases blood pressure (thirst and sexual behaviour)  Pair-bonds (especially in males)  Oxytocin: reproductive and parenting behaviour, uterine contractions and the milk letdown reflex  Released during female orgasms  Sometimes used to induce labour o Anterior pituitary gland contain endocrine cells that synthesize and secrete different hormones  The hormones do not directly exert any effect on the body. They send signals to other glands and tell them to secrete hormones. AKA Tropic Hormones.  Have target glands with specific receptors  Does not have a direct connection to the hypo like the posterior  Releasing Hormones are used by the hypo to control the release of tropic hormones  Axons of neuroendocrine cells that produce releasing hormone converge on the median eminence (EX: GnRH) o The hormones are produced in the supraoptic and paraventircular nuclei of the hypothalamus o APs cause the release of hormones into the blood Experience affects levels of circulating hormones, which can affect behaviour and future experience  Change in experience change in hormone release  change in behaviour Endocrine Feed Back Loops  Negative feedback: signal —> production of hormones —> cause effect —> signal sent to brain to inform brain of effect —> hormones stop being sent Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body  Male development involves a gene that creates testes, which send signals to create male traits. o When testes are removed males develop like females  Female development proceeds in the absence of specific genetic instructions  Much of what we know about sexual differentiation is based upon Alfred Jost  Sexual determining region of the Y chromosome: SRY gene o Promotes production of testes and suppresses the production of female organs. Without it, ovaries form. o Determines the sex o an individual after 6 weeks.  The early fetus has a genital tubercle that can form male or female structures (penis or vagina)  The wolffain ducts (seminal vesicles) and the mullerian ducts (fallopian tubes) connect the gonads to the body wall Hormones that Guide Development  Two hormones from the testes that make the system masculine o Testosterone: promotes development of wolffian system o Anti Mullerian Hormone o 5alpha-reductase converts testosterone into Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which forms genitalia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  Over active adrenal gland  Causes developing females to be exposed to androgens before birth  Depending on the level of exposure the newborn may have an intersex appearance o Only external genitalia Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome  Lacks receptors that are sensitive to testosterone  Occurs when an XY fetus has defective gene for androgen receptor  The embryos tissue do not respond to circulating testosterone  Testes remain internal and external tissue develops mainly as female Brain Structure  Prenatal testosterone does not affect neurodevelopment  Masculine by estradiol o Testosterone is converted to estradiol by aromatase in the brain o DHT cannot be converted into estradiol o Estradiol can be deactivated by Alpha fetoprotein but AF does not cross the BBB o AF protects the female brain from estradiol  Hormones have both antinational and organizational effects  Estradiol have behavioral effects and affects the development of brain structures  Developmental difference in hormone levels = anatomical difference in the brain Hormones Influence Sexual Differentiation of the Central Nervous System  CNS Contains sexually dimorphic structures and cell groups o Onuf’s nucleus o Medial Preoptic Area: a series of nuclei  Larger in males than females (due to testosterone levels at perinatal)  AKA the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the pre optic area (SDN- POA)  Lesions in this area affect ovulatory and copulatory8 behaviours o INAH3: intersittual nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus  These difference are due to different hormonal actions during development Organizational Hypothesis explains Sexual Differentiation:  Androgens masculinize the body, brain and behaviour  If the CNS does not receive androgens, it will organize itself as a female Learning: process of acquiring new information  Change in neural representation Memory: ability to store and retrieve information History of Memory  Ribot’s law: the temporal gradient commonly observed in retrograde amnesia  Korsakoff described memory loss in alcoholics (recent memories)  Wernicke described an acute clinical syndrome involving gait ataxia (choppy movements), opthalmoparesis (visual deficits) and confusion that sometimes evolved into chronic amnesia  Pick’s disease: frontal lobe degeneration led to difficulties accessing memo
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