a) Behavioral profile of Rejected children:
-much disruptive behavior
-argumentative and antisocial
-frequent attempts at social approaches
-little cooperative play, unwilling to share
-much solitary activity
Behavioral profile of Neglected children
-rarely aggressive, withdraw in the face of other’s aggression
-little antisocial behavior
-lots of solitary activity
-avoid dyadic interaction, more time with larger groups
Behavioral profile of Popular children
-positive, happy dispositions
-lots of dyadic interaction
-high levels of cooperative play
-willing to share
-able to sustain an interaction
-seen as good leaders
b) It’s a vertical relationship.
In both a vertical relationship and an adult-child relationship there is a clear hierarchy with the older
individual in charge of the younger individual. Both the adult and the older individual in the vertical
relationship help teach. The primary differences are that in the vertical relationship they are close
enough in age that they will often share interests and can more closely relate to their current peer. For
example James is may be more suited to talk about getting a Facebook account than parents who don’t
A vertical relationship is similar to same-age peer relationships (horizontal) in that, again, both help in
the socialization of the peer. In both the peers are of the same generation, but they may not be in the
same cohort. But in the vertical relationship the older peer may also have caring responsibilities that are
not available in the horizontal relationship.
c) Developmental Trends: Infants (first year)
-at 3 months – interest in other babies -after 6 months – unreciprocated approaches (ex. No eye contact).
-The difficulty is linking behavior to that of the partner; social contacts are usually one-way
affairs. You don’t see reciprocity but some intentionality is seen.
Developmental Trends: Toddlers (second year onwards)
-peer relationship is more frequent and complex (but the child isn’t initiating contact on his
-reciprocal play is frequent (ex. I hand you an object, you hand it back). This results in more
-Incorporation of toys into activities
-some differentiation and adjustment to nature of companion (the child begins to understand
that he/she must act differently with different peers)
Developmental trends preschoolers (age 3-5)
-symbolic play and development of verbal skills (beginning to learn the difference between
pretend and reality
-communication of meaning and sharing of knowledge
-negotiation of rules (around age 5). Learn to compromise
-start seeing the development of group play rather than dyadic play (just two people). It easier
to play in a group. You don’t need to keep sustaining interactions because there are others in the group
that will also be doing that. In dyadic play there’s a lot of pressure.
Developmental trends: childhood (school years)
-new opportunities for interaction. Kids now spend more time with friends than parents. More
-continued development of previous patterns.
-improved ability to read emotions, motives, and intentions. Improved development of T.o.M
-Egocentrism is left behind. They don’t think the world revolves around them. Increases social
-Groups become more same sexed and based on common interest
-become more choosy of friendships. Also friendships become more meaningful and sustained
Developmental Trends: Adolescence
-Relationships become even more critical. Peers have even more influence and parents
-Mixed sex groups and opposite sex couples appear
-teens seek support from peers during periods of transition and uncertainty (especially support
-conform to peer culture until sense of identity is acheived
-Focus on shared attitudes that than shared activities as in childhood a)
1. Parent fails to comply with a court order to assume particular parental responsibilities
-if have parents have daughter 11 year old who is prostituting, law get involved to make sure
she gets home on time. Clear court order that parents have to assume a particular responsibility and if
they don’t then they can lose child and they are held responsible – parents might lose child but no other
legal or criminal record over it.
2. the parent contributes to the delinquency of a minor
-parent is a drug dealer and gives child drugs to sell at school
3. legal liability for damages caused by their children
-a baseball breaks a window
4. new laws in some jurisdictions – parents are directly responsible for their children’s delinquent
-the quality and character of parenting results in part from the social conext in which families operate
-one important feature of this social context is public policy (which govt. gets elected will determine the
social context such as more or less funding for daycares or schools)
-public policy effects child development through its effects on parenting.
-One of the ways public policy affects parenting is family planning.
-policies can offer financial incentives for large familes. In Quebec, if someone had 6-7
children, mom would get a bonus for staying home and taking care of the kids
-they can also offer punishment for large families
-In China, families have to pay fines for the second child
-policies about abortion and contraception
-certain states in the US allow for abortions while other states don’t. The states
that don’t result in a much larger number of unwanted children which is a serious risk factor for children
-policies about funding for abortion
-if its funded then the everyone will have access, if not then only the rich will.
Ironically it’s the families who can’t afford who often have the highest risk factors (single parents, and
low SES) to having unwanted children or being unable to take care of children. a)
1. Authoritarian: has high expectations but provides low support
-children are not likely to succeed.
-children are likely to have low self-esteem, and low-self confidence.
-child may become rebellious, defiant, dependenet, and socially incompetent (especially anxious
-children feel like failures even if they are doing well because they don’t often receive the