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PSY311 Past Test Stuff.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Fall

Description
A) Research has four goals one which is “explanation”. Define the goal: the goal is examining cause and effect relationships; therefore the method required State the research method is required: experimental method (experiments) this method permits to establish a causal association by manipulating the independent variable and assessing the effect on the dependent variable in a control setting. Participants are randomly assigned to experimental and control groups.Explain why this is a difficult goal to attain in the field of social development. This is problematic because we seek to understand how behaviour aspects of social development change with age. Age is the key variable however we cannot fixed or manipulated (we can only select age). B) What is the key difference between longitudinal and cross sectional methods. Key advantages and disadvantages of each. Longitudinal : a within subject design . the same group of people is study over a period of time , observing (testing) them repeatedly . Advantages. 1)Follows development over time,2) examine whether children’s behaviour patterns are stable,3) explore possible causes of behaviour over time,4) establish link between early events and later behaviour. Disadvantages: 1) time consuming years to collect data (costly), 2)attrition problems ; loosing participants , high drop rates which can (skew results), 3) practice effects: effect of testing participants over and over again over time. 4) only descriptive o f a particular age cohort and can lose relevance as time changes. Cross-sectional (between subject design): participants of different ages are compared at the same point in time. Advantages. 1) No attrition occur ,2) no practice effects , 3)practical not expensive or time consuming Disadvantages 1) cohort effect; cannot determine if age differences are due to age or to a particular cohort. 2) individual differences b/w participants that could provide different results 3) cannot follow development over time, 4) cannot determine if individual patterns of behaviour are stable. C) You were interested in conducting and observational study concerning verbal reprimands by teachers. More specifically, you sought to determine whether there are differences between male and female teachers in use of this practice. What method would you use and why? I will do an observational method in a naturalistic environment (the classroom), we are not interfering with the behaviours, just observing because is more realistic and natural; also people especially children are prone to behave differently in an unnatural setting. The methods of time sampling, event sampling and rating scale will be used.Time sampling will be used to determine the frequency which reprimands occur. We were focusing in frequency and not in the event per se( not detail oriented) .This method has the advantage of being more date oriented and objective.Event sampling The time aspect is removed and replace by the event (record each instances of the behaviour (reprimands) will be recorded when it occurs (focus on event- more detail oriented – able to know antecedent). A hidden camera will be placed in the classroom (not interfering) with normal behaviours.Rating scales (if a want to understand the differences between male/females, i need a more comprehensive measure of the severity of reprimands). The behaviour is selected (reprimands) develop scales (in a scale from 1 to 5 and rate teacher’s behaviour. ) Because it is very good for experimental research, observers judges against specific criteria. 2. A)There are several stages in interactional development , one which is face to face exchanges What is the corresponding age rage (2 to 5 Months) What developmental task is associated with this task? To regulate mutual attention and responsiveness in face to face situation. Eye to eye interaction is required at this stage . The emergence of this stage depends on perceptual development why? The visual system gets better develop; visual acuity improves so children can better focus on faces and identify facial features , they can identify face of their mother and differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar faces , if the visual system would not develop child will not be able to have selective interactions , as he would not be able to recognize mothers face. It also allows the child to recognize a smile , reactive smile also appears ( first social smile) , visual system essential for mutual , significant interaction between infant and caregivers. B)The nature of parent infant interaction are likely to be govern by sophisticated mechanism governed by two principles . Describe and explain these. Specificity principle- states that specific experiences at specific times exert specific effects over specific aspects of infant’s growth in specific ways. All experiences the a child have do matter but certain experiences at certain times (critical period) will affect infants in specific ways. Example) on a child’s first birthday, attachment is developing and fear of strangers. At the party, everyone hugs and kisses the child and this event could have a long term effect which could lead to an increase in difficulty around adults. Transactional principle. Recognizes that the characteristics of individuals shape their experiences and reciprocally, that experiences shape the characteristics of individuals through time . infants actively contribute towards producing their own environment and reciprocally ; environment contributes to their own development. Example) Characteristics (ex. being shy) will shape a child’s experiences regardless of genetics. In turn, experiences will influence characteristics. A child exposed to going out to parties will gradually change from being shy/timid and it will reciprocally shape each other. A)What is “C” of attachment? Is a type of attachment that is Insecure –ambivalent? What behaviours a child would display in the strange situation. Babies tend to become very upset when mother leaves, but when mother comes exhibit ambivalent behaviour sometime seeking contact, sometimes not . Seek contact to her and then angrily pushed her. Parent is not able to alleviate the infant after brief separation . it is a difficult attachment and is often due to unpredictable behaviour from parents. What maternal behaviours would cause this type of attachment according to the sensitive hypothesis?Sensitivy hypothesis states that security of attachment is determined by the degree to which mother was sensitive and responsive in handling infant during early years. Parents are usually unaffectionate and inconsistence - who sometimes respond and sometimes ignore their babies needs. Therefore is expected that this children will pay more attention to toys and avoided seeking contacts if this is the behaviour they have come to expect. 4) MZ reared apart R= 4 MZ reared together R= 9 DZ reared apart R + .1 DZ reared together R=.7 - Reared together pairs of MZ |or DZ have a higher correlation than MZ(.9) and DZ (.7) reared apart ; therefore environmental factor do play a greater role than genetics . this is also evident because reared apart MZ (.4) and DZ(.1) correlations are low. -Stronger correlation for Mz than DZ reared together show some evidence of genetic effects - Looking a MZ values reared apart (.4) it can be said that the low value proves genetic did not play a major role in comparison to environment. - The MZ value when reared together show that both genetics and environment influenced . the value.9 show a strong prediction for ........this could be because they shared 100% of their genetic makeup. - DZ rear apart show that environment was responsible for........since r value(.1)was so low. - Genes do also play a role because MZ reared to together or apart have higher correlations than DZ reared together or apart. If genes did not matter then you would expect lower correlations in MZ. - DZ reared together have a higher correlations than those reared apart. DZ only shared 50% of genetic makeup so Non shared environmental influence is of greater importance than shared environmental influences In term of personality non shared environmental influences. It means that when it comes to personality siblings reared together shared some things that are not common to both but only to one sibling. Non shared environmental factor like birth order , relationships with peer, parental attitudes do influence personality more than living in the same household , having same neighbourhood or same SES. Genetic factors influenced environmental measures. Which means that genes have strong influence on behaviour for example a parent who is impatient , will have an impatient child and the impatient child will also be influence by the parents temperament( environment) so the impatient child which inherit the genes from his father , will also be influence by his father temperament Within the range of good enough parenting children’s developing depends primarily on heredity. Survival cannot depend on having perfect parents because not possible. if children only depend on perfect parents to survive they will probably not survive. Nature protects itself, child is equipped to strive. It means that if parent are only good enough; not abusive /caring/ good nutrition children will develop properly. GOALS OF RESEARCH: 1) Exploration a. Define the goal: to determine whether or not a phenomenon exists b. State the research method is required: a simple question to determine whether the phenomenon exists; simply asking, not why though. Ex. do children suck their thumbs? Do children speak? Do children speak before they develop language? c. Explain why this is a difficult goal to attain in the field of social development: 2) Description a. Define the goal: examining a phenomenon to more fully define it or to differentiate it from other phenomena; more fully define the phenomenon b. State the research method is required: ask more questions to understand the phenomenon in more depth/detail. Then you have sublevels of the phenomenon, discriminate the phenomenon from other ones. observation—in order to have qualitative date, you must observe the phenomenon to understand why this is happening c. Explain why this is a difficult goal to attain in the field of social development: because unless you go and talk to the subjects, you don’t necessarily know why they’re participating in the phenomenon. Also, there is no quantitative data being collected, only qualitative, so it’s harder to measure. There is also observer bias that might take place in situations like this, where the observer might only note the phenomenon he/she wants to observe and overlook others. 3) Prediction a. Define the goal: identifying relationships that enable us to speculate about one thing by knowing about some other thing b. State the research method is required: correlation c. Explain why this is a difficult goal to attain in the field of social development: best method we have because we can’t determine cause and effect but can predict; do lots and lots of studies for ex. language development; will be able to predict the average amount of words for a child at a certain age. Can’t manipulate these variables (like age) but can predict from what we know about a phenomenon d. Key variable often employed: correlation 4) Explanation a. Define the goal: examining cause and effect relationships b. State the research method is required: experimental method (experiments) this method permits to establish a causal association by manipulating the independent variable and assessing the effect on the dependent variable in a control setting. Participants are randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. c. Explain why this is a difficult goal to attain in the field of social development. This is problematic because we seek to understand how behaviour aspects of social development change with age. Age is the key variable however we cannot fixed or manipulated (we can only select age). Stages of Interactional Development: 1) Biological Regulation a. What is the corresponding age range: 0-2 months b. What developmental task is associated with this task? To regularize the infant’s basic biological processes and to harmonize them with parental requirements c. The emergence of this stage depends on perceptual development why? 2) Face-to-Face Exchanges a. What is the corresponding age range: 2-5 months b. What developmental task is associated with this task? To regulate mutual attention and responsiveness in face to face situation. Eye to eye interaction is required at this stage . c. The emergence of this stage depends on perceptual development why?The visual system gets better develop; visual acuity improves so children can better focus on faces and identify facial features , they can identify face of their mother and differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar faces , if the visual system would not develop child will not be able to have selective interactions , as he would not be able to recognize mothers face. It also allows the child to recognize a smile, reactive smile also appears ( first social smile) , visual system essential for mutual , significant interaction between infant and caregivers. 3) Topic Sharing a. What is the corresponding age range: 5-8 months b. What developmental task is associated with this task? To incorporate objects into social interactions and ensure joint attention and action to them 4) Reciprocity a. What is the corresponding age range: 8-18 months b. What developmental task is associated with this task? To initiate intentional actions directed at others and develop more flexible and symmetrical relationships c. Describe a fun and playful game parents employ and describe how it fosters the development of reciprocity . a fun and playful game parents employ is “Peek-a-boo.” The parent covers his/her face and says ‘Where’s (insert baby’s name)?” The baby looks around because the baby does not have person permanence and thus, the parent is ‘out of sight, out of mind’ when his/her face is covered. After revealing his/her face, the parent says ‘Peek-a-boo! There’s (so-and-so)!’ The baby laughs since the baby is using his/her cognitive and perceptual abilities to recognize and associate w
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