Two Important Hypotheses:
Sensitivity Hypothesis: Security of attachment is determined by the degree to which mother
was sensitive and responsive in handling infant during early years
Competence Hypothesis: Individual differences in security of attachment predict individual
differences later in life
One may expect that because of the excessive care giving demands on moms of twins they will
show less secure attachments.
One may expect that pre-term infants are less likely than full term infants to be securely
In many families a baby has school-age siblings. How does quality of attachment between mom
and each child affect the relationship between the infant and the sibling?
Lecture 6 : Knowledge of the Self and of others
Stages in the Development of Self-Awareness in the First Two Years:
Lewis & Brooks-Gunn (1979)
Age Behavioral indications
Interest in social objects, but no self-other
First signs of self-recognition, based on
contingency clues, but still tentative and
Emergence of self-permanence. Recognition of
self through contingency. Emergence of feature
Consolidation of basic self categories (age,
gender etc.). Feature recognition without
contingency." Developmental Changes in Self-Concept 1
From To Description of Change
1 Simple Differentiated Younger children form global concepts; older
children make finer distinctions and allow for
2 Inconsistent Consistent Younger children are more likely to change
Their self-evaluation; older children appreciate
thestability of the self concept.
Developmental Changes in Self-Concept 2
From To Description of Change
3 Concrete Abstract Younger children focus on external, visible,
physical aspects; older children focus on
internal, invisipsychological aspects.
4 Absolute Comparative Younger children focus on self without
reference to others; older children describe
themselves icomparison with others.
Developmental Changes in Self-Concept 3
Younger children do not distinguish between
5 Self-as-public Self-as-private private feelings and public behavior; older
children consider private se“true self”. Self Esteem - Coopersmith (1968)
• Significance - how much is a person loved and approved by others
• Competence - how well does a person perform tasks he or she considers to be important
• Virtue - to what extent does a person feel he or she has attained the expected moral
standards of their culture
• Power - how well and to what extent can a person control him/herself and his/her
influence on others
Fostering Self Esteem in Children:
- Keep own self-esteem high
- Communicate concern and interest with child
- Engage in joint activities
- Use reinforcement rather than punishment to reinforce rules
- Encourage self-reliance and independent behaviour tempered with protection from too
Knowledge of Others
- Learning to understand others is similar in some respects to learning to understanding
- It is unclear which occurs first but the differentiation of self from other is a long process
- Children develop both a sense of self and of others through experiencing relationships
- Young children already have some capacity to understand that other people have their
- Conversations help young children develop an understanding of why other people
behave the way they do
Theory of Mind
- Enables children to explain people’s actions (observable) by suggesting possible reasons
- Develops around 3-5 years old and becomes increasingly complex with age
- May also assist in the explanation of emotions
- Requires self awareness, the capacity of pretence and the ability to distinguish reality
Development of Social Cognition
- Content: Shift from physical and material aspects to more psychological descriptions of self,
others, and relationships."
- Structure: Inconsistent findings because:
- It is difficult to define particular shifts in the quality of social reasoning.
- Research is often descriptive and does not address how children progress from stage to stage Selman’s Work on Perspective Taking 1
“Holly is an eight year old girl who likes to climb trees. She is the best tree climber in her neighborhood.
One day while climbing down from a tall tree, she falls...but does not hurt herself. Her father sees her fall.
He is upset and asks her to promise not to climb trees anymore. Holly promises”
Selman’s Work on Perspective Taking 2
“Later that day, Holly and her friends meet Shawn. Shawn’s kitten is caught in a tree and can’t get
down. Something has to be done right away or the kitten may fall. Holly is the only one who climbs
trees well enough to reach the kitten and get it down, but she remembers her promise to her father”
Selman’s Work on Perspective Taking 3
- Does Holly know how Shawn feels about the kitten?
- How will Holly’s father feel if he finds out she climbed the tree?
- What does Holly think her father will do if he finds out she climbed the tree?
- What would you do in this situation?
Interpersonal Negotiation Strategies (INS) 1
Stage Age Description
0 3-6 Egocentric viewpoint
1 5-9 Recognition, but cannot relate perspectives to each other
2 7-12 Can reflect on another person’s point of view, but still not
consider both at the same time
3 10-15 Simultaneous consideration
4 12- Comparison can be made with societal viewpoints
Interpersonal Negotiation Strategies (INS) 2
- Adevelopmental trend from concrete to abstract descriptive style
- Increasing ability to consider more perspectives simultaneously
- Pratt and colleagues showed that parents use scaffolding to teach their children perspective taking
Lecture 7 – Sex Role Development
- infancy - distinguish faces by sex
- 2 years - label by sex
- 3 years - sex-stereotyping in toy preference
- 4 years - some rigid stereotypes about occupations
- 5 years - association of personality traits with sex Key Definitions
- Sex - biological dimension of being male or female.
- Gender - Sociocultural dimension of being male or female.
- Gender role - set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should think, act, and feel