Test 1 Definitions.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Definitions Chapter 1 Disorder: a disturbance in normal functioning (mental, physical or psychological) Disability: a condition resulting from a loss of physical functioning; or, difficulties in learning and social adjustment that significantly interfere with normal growth and development Handicap: a limitation imposed on a person by the environment and the person’s capacity to cope with that limitation Exceptional: an individual whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance deviates so substantially from the average (higher or lower) that additional support is required to meet the individual’s needs Gifts and talents: extraordinary abilities in one or more areas Learning disabilities: a condition in which one or more of an individual’s basic psychological processes in understanding or using language are deficient Intellectual disabilities: substantial limitations in functioning, characterized by significantly sub average intellectual functioning concurrent with related limitations in two or more adaptive skills. Intellectual disability is manifested prior to age 18 Deaf: Individuals, who have hearing losses greater than 75 to 80 dB, have vision as their primary input, and cannot understand speech through the ear Sterilization: the process of making an individual unable to reproduce, usually done surgically Section 504: provision within the vocational rehabilitation act of 1973 that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in federally assisted programs and activities Americans with DisabilitiesAct (ADA): civil rights legislation that provides a mandate to end discrimination against people with disabilities in private sector employment, all public services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications Civil RightsAct of 1964: US legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin Reasonable Accommodations: requirements withinADAto ensure that a person with a disability has an equal chance of participation. The intent is to create a “fair and level playing field” for the person with a disability. Areasonable accommodation takes into account each person’s needs resulting from their disability. Accommodations may be arranged in the areas of employment, transportation or telecommunications Medical model: model by which human development is viewed according to two dimensions: normal and pathological. Normal refers to the absence of biological problems; pathological refers to alterations in the organism caused by disease Pathology: alterations in an organism that are caused by disease Nature vs. nurture: controversy concerning how much of a person’s ability is related to sociocultural influences (nurture) as opposed to genetic factors (nature) Geneticist: a professional who specializes in the study of heredity Genetic counselor: a specially trained professional who counsels people about their chances of producing a seriously ill infant, in reference to their genetic history Physical therapist: a professional who provides services that help restore function, improve mobility, relieve pain and prevent or limit permanent physical disabilities. They help restore, maintain, and promote overall fitness and health for people of all ages Occupational therapist: a professional who specializes in developing self-care , work and play activities to increase independent function and quality of life, enhance development, and prevent disability Neurotic disorder: behaviors characterized by combinations of anxieties, compulsions, obsessions and phobias Psychotic disorders: serious behavior disorders resulting in a loss of contact with reality and characterized by delusion, hallucinations, or illusions Neuropsychological assessments: comprehensive examinations that assess several critical areas of how an individual is functioning , including but not limited to the level of consciousness , cranial nerves function, movement, sensation and reflexes Deviant: a term used to describe behavior of individuals who are unable adapt to social roles or to establish appropriate interpersonal relationships Barrier-free facility: a building or structure without architectural obstructions that allows people with mobility disabilities ( such as those in wheelchair) to move freely through all areas Chapter 2 The Education forAll Handicapped ChildrenAct (Public Law 94-142): this federal law made a free and appropriate public education available to all eligible students regardless of the extent or type of handicap (disability). Eligible students must receive special education and related services necessary to meet their individual needs Public law 99-457: extended the rights and protections of public law 94-142 to children ages 3-5. This law also established an optional state program for infants and toddlers with disabilities Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP): a plan of services for infants and toddlers and their families. It includes statements regarding child’s present development level, the family’s strengths and needs, the major outcomes of the plan, specific interventions systems to accomplish outcomes, dates of initiation and duration of services, and a plan of transition into public schools Individuals with Disabilities EducationAct (IDEA; Public law 101-476): the new name of the education for all handicapped children act (PL 94-142) as per the 1990 amendments to the law Zero-exclusion principle: advocates that no person with a disability can be rejected for a service regardless of the nature or extent of disabling condition Special Education: specially designed instruction provided at no cost to parents in all settings (such as classroom, physical education facilities, the home, and hospitals or institutions) Related Services: those services necessary to ensure that students with disabilities benefit from their educational experience. Related services may include special transportation, speech pathology, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation, rehabilitation counseling, social work and medical services Orthopedic impairments: bodily impairments that interfere with an individual’s mobility, coordination, communication, learning and/or personal adjustment Autism: a childhood disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal, self stimulation, intellectual deficits, and language disorders Traumatic brain injury: direct injuries to the brain, such as tearing of nerve fibers, bruising of the brain tissue against the skull, brain stem trauma, and swelling Free and appropriate public education (FAPE): provision within IDEAthat requires every eligible student with a disability be included in public education. The Supreme Court declared that an appropriate education consists of “specially designed instruction and related services” that are “individually designed” to provide “educational benefit” Individualized education program (IEP): a written framework for delivering appropriate and free education to every eligible disabled student General curriculum: instructional content that all students are expected to learn in school. Specific content and performance standards for student achievement are set by individual state or local districts Least restrictive environment: students with disabilities are to be educated with their peers without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate Coordinated early intervening services: the provision (the action of providing and supplying something for use) of services and supports for students who have not yet been identified as needing special education and related services but who need extra academic and behavior support to succeed in the general education classroom Alternate Assessments: Assessments mandated under IDEA1997 for students who are unable to participate in required state-or-district-wide assessments. They ensure that all students regardless of the severity of their disabilities are included in the state’s accountability system Standard-based approach: instruction emphasizes challenging academic standards of knowledge and skills, and the levels at which students should demonstrate mastery of them 504/ADAplan: provides for reasonable accommodations or modifications in assessments and instruction to “create a fair and level playing field” for students who qualify as disabled under Section 504 of the Vocational RehabilitationAct and the Americans with DisabilitiesAct Chapter 3 Asperger’s syndrome: a condition that shares certain unusual social interaction and behaviors with autism, but typically does not include general language delay Mainstreaming: placement of students with disabilities into general education classes for some or all of the school day Inclusive education: students with disabilities receive the services and supports appropriate to their individual needs within the general education setting Full inclusion: students with disabilities receive all instruction in general education setting classroom, support services come to the student Partial inclusion: students with disabilities receive some of their instruction in the general education classroom with “pull out” to another instructional setting when appropriate to their needs Formal supports: Educational supports provided by, and funded through, the public school system. They include qualified teachers, paraprofessionals, and access to instructional materials designed for, or adapted to, individual needs Natural supports: the student’s family and classmate, these individuals comprise a support network of mutual caring that promotes greater inclusion within the classroom and school, access to effective instruction, and the
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