TEST 2 DEFINITIONS
Social/ecological system-Asystem that provides structure for understanding human
interactions, defining roles, establishing goals for behavior, and specifying
responsibilities in a social environment.
Ecocultural-Adescriptive term that combines ecological and cultural elements to
identify factors that influence family functioning, such as unemployment, the family’s
primary language, the country-of-origin traditions, and so on.
Spina bifida- Adevelopmental defect of the spinal column.
Down Syndrome-Acondition caused by a chromosomal abnormality that results in
unique physical characteristics and varying degrees of mental retardation.
Respite Care- Assistance provided by individuals outside the immediate family to give
parents and other children time away from the child with a disability.
Dyadic Relationships- Relationships involving two individuals who develop and
maintain a significant affiliation over time.
Phonology-The system of speech sounds that an individual utters.
Syntax- The rules governing sentence structure, the way sequences of words are
combined into phrases and sentences.
Morphology- The form and internal structure of words.
Semantics- The understanding of language the component most directly concerned with
Pragmatics- Acomponent of language that represents the rules that govern the reason(s)
Receptive language disorders-Difficulties in comprehending what others say.
Expressive language disorders- Difficulties in producing language.
Aphasia- An acquired language disorder caused by brain damage and characterized by
complete or partial impairment of language comprehension, formulation, and use.
Augmentative communication-Forms of communication that employ nonspeech
Cluttering- Aspeech disorder characterized by excessively rapid, disorganized speaking
often including words or phrases unrelated to the topic. Stuttering-Aspeech disorder that occurs when the flow of speech is abnormally
interrupted by repetitions, blocking, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or
Delayed Speech-Adeficit in speaking proficiency whereby the individual performs like
someone much younger.
FunctionalArticulation Disorders- Articulation problems that are likely the result of
environment or psychological influences.
Cleft Palate- Agap in the soft palate and roof of the mouth, sometimes extending
through the upper lip.
Occlusion-The closing and fitting together of dental structures.
Malocclusion-An abnormal fit between the upper and lower dental structures.
Voice Disorder- Acondition in which an individual habitually speaks with a voice that
differs in pitch, loudness, or quality from the voices of his or her peer group.
Hyponasality-Avoice resonance disorder whereby too little air passes through the nasal
cavity; also known as denasality.
Denasality-Avoice resonance problem that occurs when too little air passes through the
nasal cavity; also known as hypernasality.
Hypernasality-Avoice resonance disorder that occurs when excessive air passes
through the nasal cavity, often resulting in an unpleasant twang.
Audition-The act or sense of hearing.
Hertz(hz)-Aunit used to measure the frequency of sound in terms of the number of
cycles that vibrating molecules complete per second.
Deafness-Ahearing loss greater than 90 dB. Deaf individuals have vision as their
primary input and cannot understand speech through the ear.
Hard of hearing-Asense of hearing that is deficient but somewhat functional.
Prelingual loss-Pertaining to hearing impairments occurring prior to the age of 2,or the
time of speech development.
Postlingual loss-Pertainig to hearing impairments occurring at any age following speech
development. Conductive hearing loss- Ahearing loss resulting from poor conduction of sound along
the passages leading to the same organ.
Sensorineural hearing loss-Ahearing loss resulting from an abnormal sense organ
[ inner ear] and a damaded auditory nerve
Mixed hearing loss-Ahearing loss resulting from a combination of conductive and
Connexin 26-Agenetic disorder that leads to flawed copies of the beta 2 gene. If both
birth parents have flawed copies of this gene,they may unknowingly pass a hearing loss
on to their newborn child.
Otosclerosis-Adisease of the ear characterized by destruction of the capsular bone in the
middle ear and the growth of a weblike bone that attaches to the stapes. The stapes is
restricted and unable to function properly.
Tinnitus-High-pitched throbbing or ringing sounds in the ear,associated with disease of
the inner ear.
Congential cytomegalovirus(CMV)- Viral infection that spreads by close contact with
another person who is shedding the virus in body secretions.
Congential toxoplasmosis infection-Characterized by jaundice and anemia, this disease
frequently results in central nervous system disorders.
Hydrocephalus-Condition resulting in excess cerebrospinal fluid in the brain.
Atresia-The absence of a normal opening or cavity.
Otis media-An inflammation of the middle ear.
Deaf culture-Aculture where people who are deaf become bonded together by a
common language(sign language) customs, and heritage, and rely on each other for social
interaction and emotional support.