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Test 2 Defintions.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Spring

Description
TEST 2 DEFINITIONS Social/ecological system-Asystem that provides structure for understanding human interactions, defining roles, establishing goals for behavior, and specifying responsibilities in a social environment. Ecocultural-Adescriptive term that combines ecological and cultural elements to identify factors that influence family functioning, such as unemployment, the family’s primary language, the country-of-origin traditions, and so on. Spina bifida- Adevelopmental defect of the spinal column. Down Syndrome-Acondition caused by a chromosomal abnormality that results in unique physical characteristics and varying degrees of mental retardation. Respite Care- Assistance provided by individuals outside the immediate family to give parents and other children time away from the child with a disability. Dyadic Relationships- Relationships involving two individuals who develop and maintain a significant affiliation over time. Phonology-The system of speech sounds that an individual utters. Syntax- The rules governing sentence structure, the way sequences of words are combined into phrases and sentences. Morphology- The form and internal structure of words. Semantics- The understanding of language the component most directly concerned with meaning. Pragmatics- Acomponent of language that represents the rules that govern the reason(s) for communicating. Receptive language disorders-Difficulties in comprehending what others say. Expressive language disorders- Difficulties in producing language. Aphasia- An acquired language disorder caused by brain damage and characterized by complete or partial impairment of language comprehension, formulation, and use. Augmentative communication-Forms of communication that employ nonspeech alternatives. Cluttering- Aspeech disorder characterized by excessively rapid, disorganized speaking often including words or phrases unrelated to the topic. Stuttering-Aspeech disorder that occurs when the flow of speech is abnormally interrupted by repetitions, blocking, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases. Delayed Speech-Adeficit in speaking proficiency whereby the individual performs like someone much younger. FunctionalArticulation Disorders- Articulation problems that are likely the result of environment or psychological influences. Cleft Palate- Agap in the soft palate and roof of the mouth, sometimes extending through the upper lip. Occlusion-The closing and fitting together of dental structures. Malocclusion-An abnormal fit between the upper and lower dental structures. Voice Disorder- Acondition in which an individual habitually speaks with a voice that differs in pitch, loudness, or quality from the voices of his or her peer group. Hyponasality-Avoice resonance disorder whereby too little air passes through the nasal cavity; also known as denasality. Denasality-Avoice resonance problem that occurs when too little air passes through the nasal cavity; also known as hypernasality. Hypernasality-Avoice resonance disorder that occurs when excessive air passes through the nasal cavity, often resulting in an unpleasant twang. Audition-The act or sense of hearing. Hertz(hz)-Aunit used to measure the frequency of sound in terms of the number of cycles that vibrating molecules complete per second. Deafness-Ahearing loss greater than 90 dB. Deaf individuals have vision as their primary input and cannot understand speech through the ear. Hard of hearing-Asense of hearing that is deficient but somewhat functional. Prelingual loss-Pertaining to hearing impairments occurring prior to the age of 2,or the time of speech development. Postlingual loss-Pertainig to hearing impairments occurring at any age following speech development. Conductive hearing loss- Ahearing loss resulting from poor conduction of sound along the passages leading to the same organ. Sensorineural hearing loss-Ahearing loss resulting from an abnormal sense organ [ inner ear] and a damaded auditory nerve Mixed hearing loss-Ahearing loss resulting from a combination of conductive and sensorineural problems Connexin 26-Agenetic disorder that leads to flawed copies of the beta 2 gene. If both birth parents have flawed copies of this gene,they may unknowingly pass a hearing loss on to their newborn child. Otosclerosis-Adisease of the ear characterized by destruction of the capsular bone in the middle ear and the growth of a weblike bone that attaches to the stapes. The stapes is restricted and unable to function properly. Tinnitus-High-pitched throbbing or ringing sounds in the ear,associated with disease of the inner ear. Congential cytomegalovirus(CMV)- Viral infection that spreads by close contact with another person who is shedding the virus in body secretions. Congential toxoplasmosis infection-Characterized by jaundice and anemia, this disease frequently results in central nervous system disorders. Hydrocephalus-Condition resulting in excess cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Atresia-The absence of a normal opening or cavity. Otis media-An inflammation of the middle ear. Deaf culture-Aculture where people who are deaf become bonded together by a common language(sign language) customs, and heritage, and rely on each other for social interaction and emotional support. S
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