lecture 1-3

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTLECTURE 1WHAT IS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTa branch of development psychologysub field that studiesochange over time in the childs understanding of attitudes toward and actions with othersoStanley hall father of American psychology studied the small childs activities and feelings control of emotions and willincludes affective cognitive and social aspects of developmentsocial psychology focuses on how we relate to others and how others influence our behaviours feelings and thoughts WHY ARE CHILDREN STUDIEDbc of an interest in children questions such as what is my child supposed to do at age xopractical implicationsotheoretical implicationsbc of an interest in adults questions about the nature and product of developmentin order to understand why adults behave the way they doHISTORICAL PERSPECTIVEevolutionary development of the fieldthree periods of social dev researchoemergence 1870s 1900s baby biographies Darwin hallsame questions as today but different methodsomiddle period 1900s1960smaturationalist approach chart and describe the unfolding of endowed characteristicsenvironmentalist approach Watson behexperimentally and objectively determine how the child learnssocialization psychoanalytic and sociological theoryhow do adults contribute to child growth and developmentomodern era 1960stodaystructuralist approach piaget kohlbertsocial processes are important and child is an active agentnormativedescriptive focus resulting in stage theories TRANSFORMATIONS IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCHspecifying developmental processesothe searchfor developmental processes maturational behaviourism psychoanalytic social learningomeditational processes in social development structural reorganization of thought and action piaget Kohlberg as developmental change agentsexpanded view of regulatory processesosocialization shift away from exclusive top down processesoself regulation coping with stress emotional regulation individual difference in temperamentexpanded units of social experenceodyadic units of analysis momchildbowlbys theoryoshift away from early determinismstudies of children brought up in orphanagesopeersbidirectional influencesincorporating contextual variations into social processesobrofenbrennerthe ecology of human devostill major challenge for researchers METHODS OF STUDYchange over time is primary concern olongitudinal designs study same ppl over timegoodwithin subjects designage differences are not attributable to btwn subject differencesbadpractice effects repeated measures practical difficulties attrition ocross sectional designs study different ppl at one timegoodno practice effects no repeated measures no practical difficulties no attitition badbtwn subjects designage differences are attributable to btwn subject differencessampling cohort effects due to congoundingometa analyses of studies of distinct age groups GOALS OF RESEARCHexploration to determine whether or not a phenomenon existsdescription examining a phenomenon to more fully define it or to differentiate it from other phenomenaprediction identifying relationships that enable us to speculate about one thing by knowing about some other thingexplanation examining cause and effect relationships DESCRIPTIVE METHODS ARE ALWAYS POPULAR AS A RESULT OF urgent and applied need for descriptive info about age changesinfluence of ethology description classification and analysis of animal behaviourelectronic recording which permits observation and anaylsis of complex behaviour NATURALISTIC OBSERVATIONstudy of behaviour in its natural setting also called field studyofirst step is understanding behaviour
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