lectures 1-3

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Stuart Kamenetsky

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT LECTURE 1WHAT IS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTa branch of development psychologysub field that studies o change over time in the childs understanding of attitudes toward and actions with others o Stanley hall father of American psychology studied the small childs activities and feelings control of emotions and willincludes affective cognitive and social aspects of developmentsocial psychology focuses on how we relate to others and how others influence our behaviours feelings and thoughtsWHY ARE CHILDREN STUDIEDbc of an interest in children questions such as what is my child supposed to do at age x o practical implications o theoretical implicationsbc of an interest in adults questions about the nature and product of developmentin order to understand why adults behave the way they do HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVEevolutionary development of the fieldthree periods of social dev research o emergence 1870s 1900s baby biographies Darwin hallsame questions as today but different methods o middle period 1900s1960smaturationalist approach chart and describe the unfolding of endowed characteristicsenvironmentalist approach Watson behexperimentally and objectively determine how the child learnssocialization psychoanalytic and sociological theoryhow do adults contribute to child growth and development o modern era 1960stodaystructuralist approach piaget kohlbertsocial processes are important and child is an active agentnormativedescriptive focus resulting in stage theoriesTRANSFORMATIONS IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCHspecifying developmental processes o the searchfor developmental processes maturational behaviourism psychoanalytic social learning o meditational processes in social development structural reorganization of thought and action piaget Kohlberg as developmental change agentsexpanded view of regulatory processes o socialization shift away from exclusive top down processes o self regulation coping with stress emotional regulation individual difference in temperamentexpanded units of social experence o dyadic units of analysis momchildbowlbys theory o shift away from early determinismstudies of children brought up in orphanages o peersbidirectional influencesincorporating contextual variations into social processes o brofenbrennerthe ecology of human dev o still major challenge for researchersMETHODS OF STUDYchange over time is primary concerno longitudinal designs study same ppl over timegoodwithin subjects designage differences are not attributable to btwn subject differencesbadpractice effects repeated measures practical difficulties attritiono cross sectional designs study different ppl at one timegoodno practice effects no repeated measures no practical difficulties no attitition badbtwn subjects designage differences are attributable to btwn subject differencessampling cohort effects due to congounding
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