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Stuart Kamenetsky

1IntroductionResearchMethodsSocial development a branch of psychology that studies aspects such as the changes overtime in a childs understanding of attitudes and actions towards others and the childs activities feelings and control of emotions and will It includes affective cognitive and social aspects of development People study children for practical implications ex what is my child supposed to do at age X and theoretical implications ex why are some behaviours not susceptible to change Darwin was the first to record baby biographies in which he observed his own child and documented their behavioursPSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVEPsychodynamic Theory Freud development is Psychosocial Theory Erikson an expansion of the determined by innate biologically based drives shaped psychodynamic theory that includes social and cultural by encounters with the environment in early childhood influences on development This theory is organized There are 5 discrete stages of development oral anal around a series of fundamental tasks that individuals phallic latency and genital According to Freud must accomplish at each stage The stages are infancy personality consists of the id instinct ego rationality early childhood play age school age adolescence and superego personality young adulthood and mature ageTRADITIONAL LEARNING PERSPECTIVEClassical Conditioning a type of learning in which a Operant Conditioning a type of learning that depends new stimulus is repeatedly presented with a familiar on reward and punishment as a consequence of stimulus until an individual learns to respond to the new behaviour stimulus in the same way as the familiar one Theorists include John B Watson Pavlov and BF Skinner COGNITIVE LEARNING PERSPECTIVECognitive Social Learning Theory children learn Reciprocal Determination and SelfEfficacy social behaviours by observing and imitating other reciprocal determination refers to the changes in the people Bandura was the first to show that children react social environment in response to a childs actions Selfmore aggressively when they watch another person act efficacy refers to the notion that children contribute to aggressively in his Bobo Doll experiment Factors that their own social development by their perception of how affect observational learning are attention retention competent they are reproduction and motivation INFORMATIONPROCESSING PERSPECTIVESocial Information Processing an explanation of a persons social behaviour in terms of their assessment and evaluation of the social situation as a guide in deciding on a course of social action This approach focuses on how children take in use and remember information to make decisions about social actions COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE Cognitive Developmental Theory Social Cognitive Domain Theory Sociocultural Theory Vygotsky Piaget children actively seek new this perspective focuses on how this theory focuses on the experiences and from them construct children learn to make social contributions of social and cultural mental structures They assimilate judgements about their world factors to a childs development new information into existing Domain specificity is the idea that Children grow and change as a structures and accommodate the process of development is function of their own efforts and the structures when the information different for different types of guidance of more skilled others doesnt fit behaviour while taking into account the zone of proximal development SYSTEMSTHEORY PERSPECTIVEEcological Theory Bronfenbrenner stresses the importance of relations between the child and the 5 environmental systems microsystem mesosystem exosystem macrosystem and chronosystem BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEEthological Theory states Evolutionary Developmental Human Behaviour Genetics behaviour must be viewed in a Theory asserts that social addresses the relative contributions particular context and as having behaviours reflect survival needs of heredity and environment to social adaptive or survival value and processes of human evolution It development and the focuses attention of parental interdependence between investments as a way of ensuring the environmental conditions and continuity of their genes whether and when genes are expressed in behaviourLIFE SPAN PERSPECTIVELife Span Theory emphasizes development over the entire life course Changes can be traced to normative agegraded events including entry into school nonnormative events such as divorce and historical or cohortrelated events such as the Great Depression or the Vietnam War Maturation a biologically determined process of growth that unfolds over a period of time Transactional behaviour ongoing interchanges between social patterns ex a parent and a childs actions modify each others behaviour Social dyad a pair of social partners such as friends a parent and child or marital partners Multifinality children may start out at a similar place but end up at different points Equifinality children may follow different paths but end up at the same point Oedipus complex Freuds theory that boys become attracted to their mother and jealous and fearful of their fatherElectra complex Freuds theory that girls blame their mother for their lack of a penis and focus their sexual feelings on their father Generativity a concern for other people especially a desire to nurture and guide younger people and contribute to the next generation Drive reduction theory a version of the learning theory that suggests the association of a stimulus and a response in classical and operant conditioning results in learning only if it is accompanied by the reduction of basic primary drives such as hunger or thirst
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