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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY311 Final Exam April 2011 1a) Describe the behavioural profile of rejected children. (Lec. 3) - They have much disruptive behaviour e.g. a child who peers dont want to play basketball with because last time he/he played, they took the ball and ran away - They are argumentative and antisocial - They are extremely active e.g. kids with ADHD are very active and tend to be more disruptive - They are talkative people who talk non-stop get annoying - They try frequent attempts at social approaches they always try to join the group without understanding the situation and how to act in the situation which can get very annoying - They part-take in little cooperative play, and are unwilling to share - They have much solitary activity - They often have inappropriate behaviours e.g. when a child isnt being accepted into a group, they might end up bullying their way into the group 1b) Paul is 6 and James is 10. What kind of peer relationship is this? In what ways is it both similar and different from same-age peer relationships and adult-child relationships? (Lec. 3) - This is a friendship type of peer relationship o Paul and James are friends who share a special bond - Paul and James relationship is a vertical relationship; it is similar to an adult-child relationship because vertical relationship when two individuals are of different ages. The vertical relationship is different from horizontal relationship (same age peer relationship), which is when two individuals are of the same age. - This is different from the same age relationship because there will more likely be unequal interactions between James and Paul. Since James is older he will play the lead role in their interactions o Same age peer relationships are usually brief, freer and more equal o Paul and James will engage in reciprocal actions, their friendship specifically can be referred to as a dyadic relationship where they experience reciprocal likings. o They will also have more social exchanges due to their age difference - Adult- child relationships are also very unequal in that the adult usually takes the lead, the child expects high degree of reciprocal liking and responsiveness from the adult than another child. o Children are not concerned about how they display themselves (socially) in adult child interactions as they dont fear as much rejection and neglected compared to peer relationships. 1c) Describe the trends in the development of infants (first year) peer relationships. (Lec. 3) - At 3 months babies take interest in other babies children show first few signs of empathy, interest and noticing one another- After 6 months children show unreciprocated approaches (e.g. handing out toys, no eye contact and no return of object) - They have difficulty linking behaviour to that of their partner; social contacts are largely one way affairs Second year onwards Developmental Trends toddlers (extra) - Peer relationships are more frequent and complex - Reciprocal play is frequent - Incorporation of toys into activities (toy and partner at same social activity) - Some differentiation and adjustment to nature of relationship Ages 3-5 Pre-schoolers Developmental Trends (extra) - Symbolic play and development of verbal skills - Communication of meaning, sharing of knowledge - Negotiation of rules - Group rather than dyadic play - Large increase in social play Childhood- School years Developmental Trends (extra) - New opportunities for interaction - Continued development of previous patterns - Proficient readers of others emotions, motives and intentions - Geocentricism is left behind - More choosy of partners - Friendships are meaningful and sustained - Groups- same sex based on common interest - Peer groups- major role in lives of individual children 2a) Comment on the long term implications of sociometric status to future soci
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