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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY312H5
Professor
Boaz Ben- David
Semester
Winter

Description
Final Summary PSY312 BREAKDOWN Chapter 11-Kimberley M Chapter 13-Jack C Chapter 14- Melissa S Chapter 15-Hamza I Chapter 16-Akriti CHAPTER 11: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT - language ability distinguishes us from all other species - we all learn language, its universal - what language depends on is what language is spoken around you - language is influenced by---biological inheritance + unique environment What Makes a Communication System a Language - other species have complex communication systems but only we have lang. - language= arbitrariness, productivity, semanticity, displacement, duality - arbitrariness = any pattern of sound, that is any word can refer to anything that the speakers of the language chooseto have it refer to - productivity = languages are creative or generative, speakers of a language can produce an infinite number of sentences using only a finite set of words - semanticity = refers to the fact that language can represent objects, actions, events and ideas symbolically - displacement = language has the ability to displace the speaker and the listener from the here and now - people can talk about objects and events that are outside of their immediate context both in time and space and about the past or future, near and far objects or events - duality = language is represented at two levels: phonology- the actual sound that a speaker produces and the underlying abstract, meaning of language reflected by the syntax(rules of putting rules together) and semantics (meaning of those words and concepts) Describing Childrens Language Development (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, phonology and morphology all develop) www.notesolution.com Final Summary PSY312 - infants begin with cries, cooand babble around 2-4 months, first words usually occur late in the first year, often Mama, Dada, only family understand - first 50 words universal across all languages refer to familiar people, toys, food - 18-24 months children begin putting sentences together, short sentences or phrases eg. all gone , Daddy home - also able to use intonation and gestures to enhance meaning - capable of understanding much more than they can express - Productive language = the language that a child can actually produce or speak - Receptive language = the language that a child can understand - receptive language exceeds productive language right into adulthood - the initial short sentences tend to lack the linking words that help give meaning eg. Mommy give milkinstead of Mommy give me the milk - called telegraphic speech , the use of high information concrete words to convey meaning - 2-5 years language developes from baby talk to more adultlike - learn approx. 12 new words per day, by school age know 8000 to 14000 words and sentences increase in length and content Phonological Development - phonology refers to the sounds of a language - unique anatomy allows us to make a wide range of sounds - sound sequence equals a word - tongue, mouth and larynx develop with age thus sound capabilities change - cooing and laughing begin2-4 months, babbling changes with age - declines at 9-12 months as words begin - babbling sounds vary widely, possible that depending on what language the infant is exposed to which sounds are then selected some disagree and feel www.notesolution.com Final Summary PSY312 only a small subset of sounds occur - the babbling changes reflect the physical changes more than speaking - possible babbling is a way to interact socially before the infants cognitive system can handle language - sounds of babbling dont mimic speech but the intonation does - adults language located on left side of brain( control right side of body) - during linguistic tasks the mouth opening is wider on the right side - nonlinguistic tasks mouth opening greater on left side (emotional expressions like smiling controlled on the right) - babies and non-babbling sounds no left right difference thus babbling seems to be linguistic in nature not just a motor exercise - speech perception---young infants can perceive phonemes(basic sound units) and categorize them as adults do---infants can initially discriminate between the sounds of different languages but eventually lose the ability to differentiate sounds that are not in their mother tongue---audition is modified over childhood as a function of what they hear - babbling stages---reflexive crying and vegetative sounds (0-8 wks)-cooing and laughter(8-20wks)-vocal play(16-30 wks)-reduplicated babbling,bababa(25-50 wks)jargon-(9-18 months) Morphological Development - morphology is structure so for language = the structure of words - the smallest unit of meaning in language = morpheme - free morphemes = stand alone eg. fire, run, ran - bound morphemes = cannot stand alone, eg. fire-s, stopp-ed, runn-ing - MLU = mean length of utterance , can be used to seehow a child has developed linguistically,( compute the average number of morphemes use by a child during a period of time) - Brown and later Villiers found 14 and 21 morphemes acquired in usual order - First ones are generally, present progressive, sing-ing ---in and on,---plural regular,apple-s----past irregular, went, saw-----possessive, hers, his, Joes www.notesolution.com Final Summary PSY312 - Often children over use the rules governing the ending morphemes such as went-ed, feets, mices - To test a childs understanding use the wug test ---- take an unfamiliar figure and label it a wug, if the child can then correctly use the making plurals etc he will know that 2 of them are wug-s or a picture of someone in action and label it a as a person who knows how to rick ---the child should then demonstrate that he knows the man is ricking ( a test using made up labels) Syntax - This is the knowledge of sentence structures or grammatical rules - Most of us know the rules implicitly but cant state them explicitly - The man drove the car., The man didnt drive the car., Did the man drive the car?, The car was driven by the man. same words different rules - our syntax is so good that we can take a nonsense sentence and make sense of it eg. The golup was pudaded under his limex. Noun, verb, object - Negatives in preschool child learn negatives, no drink milk, not bath etc - 2 stage is .I no do it, She no go.. the negative is moved into the sentence next to the main verb - lastly use auxiliaries like adults I dont want to do it.She cant have it. - Questions initially make questions by adding raised intonation on declarative sentences, Jane go outside? advancing to .Can I go outside? - before 3 years old the W questions start, Wheres Daddy?....Whats that? Etc. - Passive Sentences around 5 or 6 years, . Jane hit the ball to. The ball was hit by Jane - Children first learn about passive sentences when the verb refers to an observable event The ball was bounced. - Relating Events in Sentences around age 3 children children can relate 2 ideas and connect them with and later other conjunctions are used ,but , because, and while - Syntax changes are more subtle after age 6 or so once the basics are grasped, children take the difficult concept of language and the sounds they hear and www.notesolution.com
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