lecture notes - 213.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Lee Ann Fujii

LECTURENOTESPSY213DEVELOPMENT AND AGINGLecture1Jan7LIFESPAN PERSPECTIVE DEFINING AGECHRONOLOGICAL AGEBIOLOGICALnumber of years since birthgrowth vs declinelegal retirementpensionrelative to life expectancygenetic clocksGENERATIONAL COHORTPSYCHOLOGICALexperiences world eventsquantityquality cognitionpeer comparisonscoping and adaptive capacitiesSELFPERCEPTIONDEFINITIONSOCIOCULTURALavailable timesocial roles and responsibilitiesinterdependenceDEFINITIONS OF AGECHRONOLOGICAL AGE how long we have been around since birthBIOLOGICAL AGE assessed by measuring the functioning of the various vital or lifelimiting organ systemsPSYCHOLOGICAL AGE functional level of the psychological abilities people use to adapt to changing environmental demandsSOCIOCULTURAL AGEspecific set of roles individuals adopt in relation to other members of society and culture to which they belongWHAT HAPPENS AS A PERSON AGESpositive and negative changes GERONTOLOGY study of aging from maturity thru old agemyths about aging lead to negative stereotypes of older peopleAGEISM a form of discrimination against older adults based on their age HEALTHY SUCCESSFUL AGINGmaturity growth completedstrengthskill experienceexpertiseknowledge wisdomindependence wealthcontribution to others leadershipLIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT BALTESmultidirectionality growth and declineplasticity learning and adaptation continueshistorical context time and culture of cohortmultiple causation biological psychological sociocultural and lifecycle forcesgrowth maintenance loss regulation1LECTURENOTESPSY213FORCES OF DEVELOPMENTbiological and physical physical characteristics and genetic effectspsychological cognition perception emotion personalitysociocultural interpersonal societal cultural ethniclifecycle different effects of env factors depending on point in lifeTHE CONTEXTUAL PARADIGMadults influence and are influence by life contexts includingpersonlevel factorsbiological health and physical skillspsychological emotionalmental skillsenvironmental factorsphysical environmentsocialculturalhistorical environmentsinterdisciplinary research approach and biocultural coconstructionismSHAPING DEVELOPMENT BASIC DETERMINANTSINFLUENCESnormative agegradedbiologycorrelated with agenormative historygradedinteractionsshared culturetimenonnormative environmentideosyncraticnaturenurtureuniversalcontext specific change stabilitychange continuitydiscontinuityFORMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGEDETERMINANTS OF ADULT DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGEnormative agegraded factorssimilar development across individuals and culturebrain maturationdeteriorationinformation processingsenses vision hearing abilities normative historygraded factorsdevelopmental influences closely related to specific historical societal economic eventscohortsthose born at the same timefactors can include differences in education economics health etcnormative or idiosyncratic eventsindividual variation of unique diverse biological and environmental eventsmultiple variables are influencedbiogenetic processesindividual life choicespositive or negative chance events2LECTURENOTESPSY213success in adapting to events MEANING OF AGEPRIMARY AGING normal diseasefree development during adulthoodSECONDARY AGING developmental changes that are unrelated to disease lifestyle and other environmentally induced changes that are not inevitableTERTIARY AGING rapid losses that occur shortly before deathOVERVIEW OF THE THEMESemphasize optimizing and constraining factorsaging involves intraindividual and interindividual changes and variabilityeffects of interacting cultural biological and experiential factorsdevelopmentinterplay btwn gainslossesSUCCESSFUL AGINGavoidance of disease and disabilitymaintenance of effective physical and cognitive capacity in later yearscontinued active engagement with life friends family hobbies activitiesfactors culture economics selfconcept support system etcTHEORETICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF ADULT DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT AS GAINS AND LOSSESsome competencies remain stablesome improve wisdom and decline memoryCOCONSTRUCTION OF BIOLOGY AND CULTUREinterplay of biogenetic and cultural factorsaging effects and interindividual differenceseffects immediate or gradually noticeableQUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHANGEquantitative gradual and continuous amountCONTINUITYqualitative abrupt and stagelike typeVSSTAGESSTAGEWISE CHANGEimply dev discontinuity and qualitative changestages hierarchical additive abrupt transitionscompetent behavioursCONITNUOUS CHANGE3
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