MEMORY in adulthood

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Giampaolo Moraglia

Memory is studied using cross-sectional studies- they compare 20 year olds, with age 65 and age 85, all at one time. Some areas of memory decline, others remain stable or they improve. Why there is such a variation, is a big question. Memory= very complex: there are three processing operations: encoding, storage, retrieval. Memory is the largest, oldest, studied area in experimental psychology. As a result, memory has been categorized in many ways (some may appear to overlap) Declarative Memory: memory which can be brought to ones mind and declared. Aka non- procedural. Non-declarative memory: memory required to perform activities procedures. Aka. Procedural. Ex. Ride a bike. WITHIN DECLARATIVE MEMORY: there is an important distinction between: Semantic: ones knowledge of general facts- doesnt involve remembering time and place in which the memory was made. Episodic: information related to a specific time and place. Implicit: information retrieved without conscious effort: ex. how to start your car. Explicit: conscious effort is required to retrieve this information. ex. Remember somones name Different storehouses (which hold memory): Sensory, Short term, Long term Sensory: temporarily holds incoming sensory information (that we hear, see) which is necessary to extract information. Short-term: retains currently experienced events, which are rehearsed over and over. Ex. Remembering where to meet somebody. Long-term: retains information that is not being rehearsed in consciousness. Ex. Ones memory of their life 15 years ago. Retrospective: memory for past events Prospective: memory needed to perform future actions. Ex. Remember to come to class next week for a test.
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