test 2 study notes - very detailed

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Giampaolo Moraglia

Parenthood, Role changes, Marital Satisfaction Rise in life expectancy and divorce A couples joint responsibilities as parents can affect their own relationship Marital satisfaction follows a u-shaped curve: early high point, declines until late middle age, rises again through first part of late adulthood Least happy time= when couples are heavily involved in raising children and careers Positive aspects of marriage (cooperation, discussion) follow U shape pattern Negative aspects like anger, disagreement tend to decline (this could because these marriages end in separation) Research showed that marital satisfaction exists in a U shape- d During the first 20-24 years of marriage, the longer the marriage has lasted, the less satisfied they tend to me But in late 30-40s years of marriage, couple remains very satisfied THREE SECTIONS OF THE U SHAPED CURVE: early, middle, later years EARLY YEARS: When children come, couples may experience dissatisfaction Spouses with children, especially if they had them early in marriage, or those with many children, show steeper decline in dissatisfaction Marriages that breakdown, tend to involve younger individuals, less educated, less income, have been married for a short time Mothers with babies that have difficult temperament have a hard time Those with a lot of pre-baby images tend to be more disappointed with post- baby reality because they didnt have accurate expectations Women who think baby will improve marriage, suffer www.notesolution.com MIDDLE YEARS: U shaped curve hits bottom during first part of middle years, when children become teens Identity issues of midlife conflict with adolescent issues women feel more feelings of independence/power as they dont have much to do with raising kids\ Communication between couples can reduce stress of physical signs of aging, loss of sex drive In a good marriage, couples can spend extra time on eachother, in a shaky marriage, problems arise, in an empty nest, couple realizes they have less in common with eachother and try to figure out whether they want to stay together LATER YEARS: Couples in 60s are more likely to call their marriage satisfying- perhaps because marriage has improved, or because they have worked out their differences, or because they say it as a way of justifying the fact that they stayed together for so long Couples handle problems due to mutual supportiveness: comes from 3 elements of marriage: intimacy (emotional and sexual), interdependence (share resources/ tasks) and partners sense of belonging to each others Couple may find more interest in each other After 70, people may consider themselves less happy However women may not get the warmth and affection she needs- caring for a disabled spouse can make one angry, isolated- therefore needs friends and needs to be optimisitic Change in roles- ex. Who does house work, can create differences REMAINING CHILDLESS: Increasing trend: perhaps because people want to focus on careers, feel comfortable around adults Dont think theyll be a good parent www.notesolution.com Dont want to deal with the financial burden Women think theyll become less physically attractive with a kid, want to enjoy a adult lifestyle Some women may experience regret, may report a lack of support Chapter 6- continued Creativity: What is creativity? Children may show creative potential: but what matters in adults is creative performance- what and how much a mind produces Its the product of biological, social, personal and cultural forces It emerges from a dynamic interaction among the creator, rules/techniques of the domain, and colleagues who work in the domain Exceptional talents arent born, but rather made- require training and practise One approach: says creative achievements come from a deep knowledge of a subject, intrinsic motivation to work hard (not for external rewards) and a strong emotional attachment to work (can persevere during obstacles) Overtraining in a genre can stir up creativity, but that versatility along with expertise- can help Creative people= self-starters, risk takers, independant, nonconformist, unconventional, flexible, open to new ideas and experiences Develops over a lifetime in a social context, not always in nurturing environments Can arise from diverse experiences that arent conventional CREATIVITY AND INTELLIGENCE The three aspects of intelligence identified by Sternberg, may play a role in the relationship between intelligence and creativity: www.notesolution.com INSIGHTFUL: helps define a problem- see it in a new view- how? 1) Pick out information that other people have not noticed in a problem 2) Make relationships between 2 unrelated pieces of information 3) See how a new problem can be solved, based on problems theyve solved in the past These abilities become more efficient with experience and knowledge -ANALYTIC: - evaluate an idea and see if it is worth pursuing -PRACTICAL: may be strongest in middle age- how can one sell the idea- get it accepted STUDYING AND MEASURING CREATIVITY: How can we compare the creativity of an artist with the abilities of an ordinary person? Creativity has 5 levels: 1) Spontaneous expression ex. As in a childs scribbling 2) Producing scientific or artistic work 3) Inventing a new/useful object, method, technique 4) Modifying a concept 5) Originating a revolutionary new principle/movement (rarely achieved, therefore focus on other 4 levels) Psychometric tests of creativity try to measure abilities that predict creative productivity THREE approaches used to measure creativity: www.notesolution.com
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