Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes
Semester
Winter

Description
TheInfluenceof Drugsand Hormones on Behaviour Sunday,February28, 2010 7:13PM Portrait:The Case of theFrozenAddict { 7adultshospitalizedafteranencounterwithheroincontainingMPTP(contaminant) { Experiencedmovementproblems { ]2L}Z]Z9l]LZ}L[Z]ZZ | MPTPacts as a selectiveneurotoxin,killingcellsofsubstantianigratherebyreducing amountofdopamineinbrain { GeorgeCarillo { Receivedfetaldopaminetransplants { Hisbrainshowedincreaseddopaminefunction&hehadadecreaseinmotorsymptoms Slide3 TheInfluenceofDrugs andHormones onBehavior { Psychopharmacology { Studyofhowdrugsaffectthenervoussystemandbehavior { Drug:chemicalcompoundadministeredtobringaboutsomedesiredchangeinthebody { PsychoactiveDrugs { Asubstancethatacts to altermood,thought,orbehavior { Usedtomanageneuropsychologicalillness { Also,substancesofabuse { Manypromotecravingand can produceaddiction RoutesofDrug Administration { Slide5 { Routeofadministration:wayinwhichadrugentersandpassesthroughbodyto reach target { Generallyfewerbarriersifdrugisinhaledorinjected;fewestobstacles-injecteddirectlyinto brain RoutesofDrug Removal { Drugsare metabolizedinthekidneys,liver,andbile { Drugsare excretedintheurine,feces,sweat,breastmilk,andexhaledair RevisitingtheBlood-BrainBarrier { Blood-brainbarrier { Braincapillariescomposedofendothelialcellsthathavetightjunctions { Endothelialcellsaresurroundedbytheendfeetofastrocytes,helpexchangefoodand wasteandmaintaintightjunctionsandmakecapillariesdilatetoincreasebloodflowto areasonthebrain inwhichneuronsareveryactive { Smallmoleculesandfatsolublemoleculescanpassthrough { Activetransportsystems,pumps,carryinnutrients Slide8 { Smallmolecules,suchasoxygenandCO2,whicharenot ionizedandsoafatsoluble,canpass throughthecapillarywall { Moleculesofglucose,aminoacids,andothernutrientscanbecarriedacrossthecapillaryby active-transportsystems,whicharepumps,thatarespecialisedforthetransportofaparticular substance Slide9 { Severalareasofthebrainlackthetightjunctions { Pituitarygland { Areapostrema { Pinealgland DrugRoutesandDosages { Iftakenorally,themosteffectivedrugsconsistofmoleculesthatare: { Small,weaklyacidic,waterorfatsoluble,potentinsmallamounts,andnoteasilydegraded { InhalationorInjection { Canreducethedoseofthedrug www.notesolution.com { InhalationorInjection { Canreducethedoseofthedrug { Foreachobstaclein thebodythatis eliminated,thedrugdosecan bereducedbya factorof10 DrugActionsinSynapses { Drugscan influenceanycomponentofneurotransmission { Mostpsychoactivedrugsworkbyinfluencingthechemicalreactionsatsynapses { AgonistsvsAntagonists { Agonistsincreasetheeffectivenessofneurotransmission { Antagonistsdecreasetheireffectiveness DrugActionat anAcetylcholineSynapse { Slide12 { InfluencethereleaseofAChfromtheaxonterminal { Blackwidowspidervenom | PromotesreleaseofACh { Botulinumtoxin | BlocksreleaseofACh { Acton AChreceptors { Nicotine | Agonisttostimulatecholinergicreceptors | Cholinergicreceptorasneuromuscularjunctionisanicontinicreceptor | StructuresimilartoACh { Curare | Antagonistatcholinergicreceptors,blockingthemandpreventingAChfromacting | CannotcrossBBB-nopsychoactiveeffects { Physostigmine { Inhibitsacetylcholinesterase(breaksdownACh) { AgonisttoincreaseamountofAChavailableinsynapse { Smalldosesusedtotreatmyastheniagravis("muscularweakness")-musclereceptorsless thannormallyresponsivetoACh { Organophosphates { BindirreversiblytoAChEandsoare extremelytoxic ClassificationofPsychoactiveDrugs { Sevenclassesofdrugsbasedontheireffects { Drugsdividedintosevenclassesaccordingtomostpronouncedpsychoactiveeffectofadrug { Furtherdividedintosubcategories { ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents { Alcohol { Commonbeverage { Harmsbraindevelopmentinfetusesandproducesfetalalcoholsyndrome { Barbiturates { Sleepingmedication { Anesthesiabeforesurgery { Benzodiazepines { Minortranquilizersorantianxietyagents | Example:Valium ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents { "sedative"-tocalmormoderatenervousnessorexcitement { "hypotic"-sleepinducing { Effectsdependondose { Slide13 { Mostcommon { Alcohol | Canproducefetalalcoholsyndrome(FAS) { Barbiturates Induceanesthesia www.notesolution.com{ Barbiturates | Induceanesthesia { Benzodiazepines | Akaminortranquilizersorantianxietyagents | Usedtotreat stress | Eg.Valium { AllworkbyinfluencingtheGABA reAeptor { Controlsachloridechannel,andexcitationofthereceptorproducesinfluxofCl-ions (hyperpolarizesmembrane,lesslikelytopropagateactionpotential { Slide15 { GABAdecreasesneuron'srateoffiring { Thesedative-hypnoticsiteincreasesinfluxofCl-ionsandsoproducesameeffect { AntianxietysiteacceptsbenzodiazepinesandenhancesbindingofGABA | GABAconcentrationsareneverexcessive { Combineddosageofantianxietyands-hdrugscanproducecomaordeath ClassI:Sedative-hypnoticsandAntianxietyAgents { DissociativeAnesthetics { Sedative-hypnotics { GHB,flunitrazepam(roofies),andketamine(SpecialK) | Daterapedrugs | Producealteredstatesofconsciousnessandhallucinations | Solubleinalcohol,actquickly,andimpairmemoryforrecentevents ClassII:AntipsychoticAgents { Psychosis { Variousneuropsychologicalconditionsthatarecharacterizedbyhallucinations(false sensoryperceptions)ordelusions(falsebeliefs) { Drugsthat treatpsychosisareknownas antipsychotics,majortranquilizers,andneuroleptics { Commoneffect:immediatere
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