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321 Test 2 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY321H5
Professor
Frank Reid
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture4CulturecognitionperceptionBasicpsychologicalprocessesCognitionTheactivitiesinvolvedinthinkingreasoningdecisionmakingmemoryproblemsolvingandallotherformsofhighermentalprocessesAllmentalprocessesweusetotransformsensoryinputintoknowledgeAttentionreferstothefocusingofourlimitedcapacitiesofconsciousnessonaparticularsetofstimuliSensationInputaboutthephysicalworldprovidedbyoursensoryreceptorsPerceptionTheprocessthroughwhichweselectorganizeandinterpretinputfromoursensoryreceptorsCulturevisualperceptionOpticalillusionsPerceptionsthatinvolveanapparentdiscrepancybetweenhowanobjectlooksandwhatitactuallyisExTheMuellerLyerillusionCarpenteredworldtheoryWhentwoobjectsoccupythesamesizeretinalimagethemoredistantobjectislargerRetinalobjectsizesameretinalsizethefartherfigureislargerThearrowheadsgiveusthesenseofanglessuchasthoseformedwhereawallmeetsafloororwheretwolinesofaroofmeetWeexperiencethelinewiththeoutwardpointingarrowheadsaslongerbecauseitseemstoindicatealinethatisfartherawaythanthelinewithinwardpointingarrowheadsFronthorizontalforeshorteningtheoryNonwesternershaveahighertendencytobefooledbythehorizontalverticalillusionandjudgetheverticallineaslongerthanthehorizontaloneWhyWeinterpretverticallinesashorizontallinesthatexistinthedistanceInthisillusionweinterprettheverticallineasmovingfarawayfromushorizontallyCulturevisualperceptionBoththeoriessharetheassumptionthatthewayweseetheworldisdevelopedovertimethroughourexperiencesWhatweseedependsonbothourlightsensationandourlearningexperiencewhichshapessensationsintoperceptionsTheyalsosuggestthatweliveinathreedimensionalworldthatisprojectedontooureyesintwodimensionsWeinterpretdistancebasedupontwodimensionalcueswehavelearnedandpracticedformanyyearsSymbolizingthreedimensionsintwotheoryWesternculturesFocusmoreonrepresentationsonpaperthandopeopleinotherculturesSpendmoretimelearningtointerpretpicturesMoresusceptiblemorelikelytobefooledtotheMuellerLyerillusionLesssusceptiblelesslikelytobefooledtothehorizontalverticalillusionOppositeinpeopleofNewGuineaIndiaGeneticpredispositionsExBiedermanYueDavidoff2009HimbaofnorthwesternNamibiavsAmericansPapervsprojectedimageMotivationCategorizationProcessofcategorizationisuniversalSortcomplexstimulibyorganizingintomeaningfulunitsCreaterulestoguidebehaviouranddecisionmakingSomecategoriesareuniversalFacialexpressionsforbasicemotionsPrimarycoloursTaxonomiccategorizationCommonamongWesternersSharedattributesThematiccategorizationCommonamongEastAsiansSharedthemeAnalyticvsHolisticperceptioncognitionAnalyticperceptionandcognitionFocusonobjectsandtheirattributesObjectsperceivedasexistingindependentlyfromtheircontextsUnderstoodintermsofcomponentsObjectattributesthebasisforcategorizationFixedsetofrulestoexplainandpredictthebehaviourofobjectsHolisticperceptionandcognitionOrientationtothecontextasawholeAssociativewayofthinkingRelationsamongobjectsRelationsamongobjectsandtheirsurroundingsObjectsUnderstoodintermsofhowtheyrelatetothecontextUsedtopredictandexplainbehaviourofthoseobjectsLessemphasisonabstractrulesvsknowledgegainedthroughexperienceSocializationIndividualisticculturesCollectivisticculturesDifferencesevidenteven2500yearsagoAristotleandConfucianismNotsurewhydifferencesaroseWesterneducationAnalyticvsholisticperceptionAttentionAnalyticperceptionFocusattentiononseparatepartsofasceneHolisticperceptionFocusattentionmorebroadlyacrossanentiresceneRodandFrametaskalignarodwithintheseframessothattherodisverticalRodandframerotatedindependentlyDifferencesacrossculturessocialorientationspersonalityandreligionsExMasudaNisbett2001AnimatedcomputerimagesofanunderwatersceneSwimmingfishseaweedfloatingbubblesDescribewhatisseenRecallwhatwasseenJapanese60morereferencestobackgroundobjectspayingattentiontotheentirescenebecausetheyreusingholisticperceptionAmericansusemoreanalyticperceptionrecallforbackgroundinfoisworsethanJapaneseNodifferenceinrecalloffocalmainobjectsExMasudaNisbett2001FocalfishwithoriginaldifferentornobackgroundsHaveyouseenthefishbeforeOriginalbackgroundJapanesehadbetterrecognitionDifferentnobackgroundJapaneseworserecognitionWhyMemoryorperceptionMemoriesarenotveridicalsnapshotsofrealityExDistinctiveinterestinginformationExInformationthatisconsistentwithexpectationsEyetrackingstudies
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