definitions exam exceptionality.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

 autism - developmental disorder that usually occurs before the age of 3 and is characterized by 1. language deficits; 2. intellectual deficits; 3. extreme social isolation; 4. self stimulation  autistic spectrum disorders - spectrum of disorders that are characterized by 1. varying degrees of language deficits; 2. intellectual deficits; 3. deficits in interpersonal skills; 4. emotional disturbance  ****echolalia - meaningless repetition or imitation of words that have been spoken; it is among the most salient behavioral abnormalities in autistic children  asperger’s syndrome - high functioning form of autism; unlike individuals with autism, those with aspergers don’t show marked delay in language or cognitive development; individuals with aspergers have serious impairment in social and communication skills; shares unusual social interactions and behaviours with autism but includes no language delay j  ****retts syndrome - neurological condition affecting mostly girls who develop normally until 5 to 30 months when developmental skills slow down and in many cases regress  stereotypic behaviours - behaviours that involve repeated movements such as rocking, hand flapping; although not always present, it is often associated with autism; can lead to self injurious behaviours such as hand banging against the wall  vermis - area in the cerebellum that appears to be underdeveloped in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders; this abnormality may be related to the cognitive malfunctions in autism  ABA - is a behavioral therapy that attempts to modify behaviors by focusing on ABCs (antecedents of behaviors, behaviors themselves and its consequences). this therapy has been proved to be successful at reducing disruptive behaciors and inc adaptive behaviours bc it not only focuses on the cosequences of behaviours but also on what triggered them  physical disabilities - disabilities that effect individual’s ability to move about through space, use arms and legs, and breather independently  orthopedic disabilities - conditions that are characterized by amputation or loss of limb or cerebral palsy that effects individual’s academic and physical performance  cerebral palsy- neuromuscular disorder that affects muscle coordination and movement; it resulting from damage to one or more areas of the brain and occurs during fetal development, before, during or after the birth or during infancy  spina bifida - birth defect that occurs as a result of incomplete growth of spinal cord or its covering  spina bifida occulta - mind form of spina bifida in which small slit is present on one or more of vertebra structures  spina bifida custica - malformations of the spinal cord in which a tumourlike sac is present on the back of an infant  spina menigocene - toumour like sac is filled with spina
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