exam review psy345.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Autism definitions  autism appeared in literature in the beginning of 20 century ****  autistic spectrum disorders o spectrum of disorders that are characterized by language deficits, intellectual deficits, emotional disturbance and deficits in interpersonal skills  autism o neurological disorder usually evident before the age of 3, characterized by language deficits, intellectual deficits, extreme social isolation, and self stimulation o ****IDEA - autism is  neurological disorder  affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction  mostly evident before the age of 3  that adversely affects academic performance  that is characterized by  impairments and irregularities in communication  engagement in regular activities and stereotypic movements  resistance to env change and change in routine  unusual response to sensory experiences  aspergers o higher functioning form of autism o unlike individuals with autism, those with aspergers don’t show marked delay in language and cog development o show deficits in communication and social skills o shows unusual social interactions and behaviors with autism but with no delay in language****  retts syndrome **** o neurological disorder affecting mostly girls o who develop normally until age 5 months to 30 months o when the development skills slow down and in many cases regress prevalence  5 in 10 000 people - autism ****  116 in 10 000 people - autism spectrum disorders characteristics  rigid when picked up ****  no response to physical contact  no eye contact  use peripheral vision  attachment to obj and not people  language o most don’t develop language, those that do often have echolalia  ****echolalia - meaningless repetition or imitation of words that have been spoken; among the most salient behavioural abnormalities in kids with autism  stereotypic behaviours o stereotypic behaviours or self stimulation  behaviours that involve repeated movements such as rocking and hand flapping  often occurs in kids with autism  sometimes leads to self injurious behaviors (mostly low functioning)  resistance to routine o resistance to env change and change to the routine  intelligence o 75% have lower intelligence that other kids o 10-15% have splinter skills - areas of ability in which performance is exceptionally high  learning characteristics o difficulties  perseverate on a topic - have hard time shifting attention from one topic to the next  difficulty with language and abstract reasoning ****  focus of separate stimuli without understanding the general concept  abilities develop unevently both within and amoung skill levels ****  difficulty in inclusion - inclusion depends to a high degree on the classmates  when the child desires routine, the teacher can draw on it when practice or drill is warranted in learning a skill **** o strengths  can focus  good long terms memory  splinter skills causes  psychodynamic o the cause of autism is family interactions o in response to the rejection from the parents the child develops defense mechanism o retreats to the inner world and stops interacting with the outside words that involves people  biological o most current research on the causation of autism is based on biological perspective **** o fragile x chromosome  part of the x chromosome breaks off or splits  occurs in some males with autism ****  not cause but simply co-occurs with autism o vermis****  area in the cerebellum that appears to be underdeveloped in children with autistic spectrum disorders,  this abnormality may be related to the cognitive malfunctions in autism o neurological damage to the CNS  may be due to alcohol abuse or rubella, delivery problems o many researchers view autism as a behavioural syndrome with multiple biological causes **** diagnosis and intervention  diagnosis o mostly before the age of 3  educational intervention o the main goal is to prepare them to live in their own community in the least restrictive env o it is vital that IEP have central component of functional communication and social skills **** o under IDEA students with autism are entitled to free and appropriate education in least restrictive environment possible ****  psychological and medical intervention o before - aim was to reduce inner conflict****; electroshock**** was used and psychosurgery o today - drugs are used to relieve the symptoms  antipsychotics - relieve self injuries behaviours  clomipramine - relieve obsessive compulsive disorders o drugs have shown some improvement in autism but it should be used in conjunction with multicomponent treatment plan****  behavioural therapy o focuses on reducing maladaptive behaviours and enhancing adaptive behaviours o prompts decreasing in problem beahviours and potential improvement of survival skills **** o does not cure autism but simply cures behavioural actions o facilitative communication - using typing as a means of communication; the therapist provides physical support by putting light pressure on the patient’s arm -> controversial b not the child but the facilitator could be doing the communication o doesn’t cure autism but helps behavioural actions o facilitative communication  using typing to communicate****  therapist provides physical support by touching and putting light pressure on the student’s hand  little empirical evidence that supports the effectiveness of facilitated comm in kids with autism **** multiple and severe disabilities definitions  the needs of person with multiple disabilities cannot be met by one professional ->require involvement of many diff professionals ****  abt definition focused on deficits and negative behaviors  jesten - described btw normal and atypical development  then focused on definitions that were oriented towards educational needs  tash - promote full inclusion into family school and community life  adaptive fit o determine the ability of the child to cope with the demands of the env o the extent to which the environments realize and accommodate the needs of individuals o (?) can change the goals without changing the env o adaptive fit is dynamic process and requires continuous adjustment o it can only be created when there is ongoing formal or natural support ****  idea definitions o idea doesn’t include severe disabilities as one of the categories o multiple disabilities  concomitant impairments the combo of which results in severe educational needs that cannot be accommodated in the special ed class designed solely for one impairment  dual diagnosis - identification of both intellectual disorder and severe emotional problems or challenging behavioours in the same person, not including visual and hearing impairments **** o deaf blindeness  unlike in dual diagnosis - intellectual disabilities is not the primary symptom  both visual and hearing impairments that result in severe communication problems, and education needs that cannot be accommodated in the special needs class for solely hearing or visual impairment  some say that people who are deaf blind have such severe intellectual disabilities that both hearing and vision are affected  intellectual abilities range from normal or gifted to severe intellectual disabilities  all people with deaf blindness  have challenges to communicate  get access to info ****  move comfortably through the space prevalence  severe and multiple disabilities - 0.1% to 1% ***of general population (4 in 1000)  severe and multiple - 2% from all eligible under idea  deaf blindness - 0.0002% of all eligible under idea causes  in most cases evident at birth ****  most common cause is genetic in origin ****  other causes are prenatal (ie alcohol abuse) or occur later in life characteristics intelligence  the most common symptom for individuals with severe and multiple disabilities is intellectual disability **** (not for individuals who are deaf blind) o in multiple and severe disabilities -> intellectual disability + other health impairment o dual diagnosis -> intellectual disability + emotional problems o deaf blindness -> vision + hearing impairment (no intellectual disability)  most cant be taught basic academic skills (like math, reading writing); have to be taught functional academic skills (like telling time, paying for bill, reading road signs) adaptive skills  adaptive skills are critical for success in natural setting - personal independence and social interaction  adaptive skills - conceptual, social and practical skills that facilitate person’s ability to function in the family, community and school setting speech and language  people with severe and multiple disabilities have language deficits ranging from articulation and fluency to the absence of any expressive oral language **** physical health  epilepsy - condition that produces brief disturbances in brain function resulting in seizures of varying degrees ****  athetosis - condition characterized by constant, contorted twitching motion of wrists and fingers  hypotonia - poor muscle tone  catheterization - introducing tube into body cavities to drain fluid; such as inserting tube into bladder to drain urine  gastronomy tube feeding - process of feeding person through the tube that is inserted into the stomach  respiratory ventilation - use of ventilator to supply oxygen to the person with respiratory problems vision and hearing  more freq in severe and multiple disabilities  deaf blindness - significant problems  individuals with multiple and severe disabilities require involvement of multiple professionals  adaptive fit - the degree to which an individual is able to cope with the demands of the environment and the degree to which the env recognizes and accommodates the individual o need ongoing formal and natural support  severe disabilities is not included in IDEA  multiple disabilities o concomitant disabilities, combo of which results in such severe educational needs that cant be accommodated be special education program solely for one disability o mostly intellectual disability + other health disability  dual diagnosis o identification of intellectual disability and emotional problems in the same individual  deaf - blindness o concomitant visual and auditory impairment the combo of which results in such severe ed needs that cant be accommodated by sp ed program for vision or hearing o results in communication impairments and other developmental deficits o doesn’t usually result in intellectual deficits o challenges getting access to info and communication  prevalence o multiple and severe - 1% o deaf blindness - 0.002%  causes o mostly genetic o usually evident at birth  characteristics o intelligence  for severe and multiple the most common is intellectual deficits  need the instruction of functional academic skills o adaptive skills o speech and language  impairments can range from articulation and fluency to loss of any exp language o physical health  epilepsy - brief disturbances in brain function  hypotonia - poor muscle control  spasticity - involuntary contraction of muscles  have higher incidence of  congenital heart disease, hypotonia, spasticity, diabetes, epilepsy  educational support and services o authentic assessment - measuring the kid’s progress on some meaningful activity - ie telling time  skills are not taught in isolation  learn the skills where behavior is expected to occur  don’t go through a sequence of readiness stages o alternative asessment  mandated by IDEA - used when no other assessment can be used o early childhood  effective programs are both child and family centered o elementary school  protection of people with multiple disabilities resulted in isolation o self determination - ability to make your own choies o teaching functional skills  should involve - many people, variety of settings and variety of materials  they must be taught with real objects in real situations  genetic engineering o the purpose is to conquer disease o reduce human suffering o enhancing and perfecting human beings  the role of the genetic councellor is to provide info, not become moral adviser physical disabilities - physical disability - disability that affects individual’s ability to move about, use arms and legs and breathe independently - orthopedic disability - condition resulting from amputation or loss of limb as well as conditions such as cerebral palsy which effects individual’s academic and physical performance - other health impaired - experiencing weakness and limited strength resulting from other health problems cerebral palsy  neuromuscular disorder that results from damage to one or more areas of the brain, occurs most often during fetal development, during, before or shortly after birth or during infancy; group of conditions that affect muscle coordination and muscle movement  cerebral - brain; palsy - weak muscle tone, poor muscle control  characteristic o 3 types of movements  spastic - stiff and difficult movements ****  athatoid - uncontrollable movements  ataxic - poor balance control and distributed depth perception o in some cases intellectual abilities, language, vision or hearing can be effected->people with multiple disabilities  prevalence o 1.5 - 4 in 1000  cause o any damage to the brain  intervention o cannot be cured so have to manage to condition o vital goals involves -improving existing skills, decreasing complications, developing communication etc o have to adjust treatment to meet the child’s emerging needs spina bifida  birth defect that is caused by incomplete growth of the spinal cords or it covering  occurs a few days after pregnancy, when the woman might not even know she is pregnant  2 types o spina bifida occulta  mild form of spina bifida in which small slits (openings) are present are one or several parts of the vertebrae structures  has little impact on the developing infant  might not know about the condition unless there is xray done o spina bifida cystica  malformation of the spinal column in which tumour like sac is produced at the back of an infant  2 types  spina menigocene o tumour like sac is filled with spinal fluid  spina myelomenigocene o tumour like sac is filled with spinal fluid and neural tissue o has a seious impact on the infant including paralysis or weakness of the lower body and inability to control bowel and bladder o often accompanied by hydrocephalus - extensive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the brain  characteristics o bowel and bladder incontinence o weakening or paralysis of lower extremities or whole body o hydrocephalus o most have normal IQ (depending on the location it may or ma not influence intellectual functioning) -> most are educated in general classroom **** o for 80% of kids myelomenigicene portion of spinal cord is exposed  cause o deficiency in folic acid, genetics o mothers may be screened for the presence of fetal protein (AFT)-> confirms the diagnosis o if diagnosis is made - may decide to abort or keep the baby o ****teratogens - substances or conditions that cause malformations of an embryo or fetus; ie: rubella, excessive glucose, chromosomal abnormality may cause spina bifida spinal cord injury  injury derived from bruising or severing of the spinal cord producing bleeding and swelling and often producing irreversible damage resulting in loss of motor and/or sensory functioning  common causes o most common - vehicles-> 42% o alcohol -> 34% o children ->5%  average age o 38 years  treatment o immobilize the person o stabilize the spine, manage swelling, prevent further movement  characteristics o depending on the location of the damage - can paralyze the whole body or lower extremities o bowel and bladder incontinence o no hydrocephalus like in spina bifida o education is in the general classroom mascular degeneration  refers to 30 genetic disorders characterized by progressive weakening, degeneration and death of skeletal muscles that are responsible for controlling movement  treatment o prevent or correct contractions o preserve independent ambulatory o prescribe supportive devices (ie walkers, wheelchairs) health disorders - health disorders - conditions that are characterized by limited stamina, vitality and alertness - medically fragile - individuals who are at risk for medical emergency and who depend on supportive technology to sustain their health and life - technologically dependent - individuals who are dependent on technology to meet their health needs while participating in daily activities HIV and AIDS  AIDS - set of symptoms and infections in individual resulting from damage to the immune system, caused by infection with HIV  characteristics o infection with HIV - kills helper T cells o steps  transmission of HIV  production of antibodies  decline in immune system, virus destroys cells in immune system  symptoms (weight loss, diarrhea, fatigue); may have opportunist infection - infections that are caused by germs which are generally not harmful and don’t cause an infection but given an opportunity (damage to the immune system) are able to do so  immune system fails and death bc chronic diseases infect individual athsma  inflammation and swelling of the air passages that transport air from mouth and nose to the lungs seizure disorders  e
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