Study Guide for PSY346

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University of Toronto Mississauga

People: Wundt “Father of Psychology”; introspection Wertheimer Gestalt psychology Titchner Structuralism James Functionalism Watson Behaviorism; “Little Albert Study”; aversion therapy Freud Psychoanalytic; dream analysis; free association; structure of personality; stages of development; defense mechanisms Milgram Obedience; Ethics; 65% Broca Left frontal lobe; if Broca’s is broken, no words are spoken Wernike Left temporal lobe; receptive language Pavlov Classical conditioning; dogs (bells) Thorndike Instrumental learning; cats; law of effect Skinner Operant conditioning; rats and pigeons; behaviorist Tolman Latent learning; cognitive maps Bandura Observational learning; Bobo dolls; social-cognitive theory Ebbinghaus Forgetting; decay model Chomsky Native theorist; inherent existence of sets of cognitive structures Whorf Linguistic relativity hypothesis Washoe, Sara, Koko Ape language studies Jung Collective unconscious; archetypes; psychoanalytic Horney Basic childhood anxiety; psychoanalytic Erickson 1-bun, 2-shoe, etc. psycho-social development Adler Inferiority complex, psychoanalytic Piaget Stages of cognitive development; cognitive theorist Rogers Client-centered; unconditional positive regard; transactional analysis Albert Ellis Rational emotive therapy; cognitive theorist Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs; humanistic Sheldon Somatotyping; endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph Binet I.Q. Eysenck Biological model of personality; trait-type hierarchy Harlow Monkey studies; attachment; contact comfort Lorenz “survival of the fittest” and imprinting Phineus Gage Railroad spike; damaged limbic sys, emotions/motivational control center Aaron Beck Cognitive therapy treating depression Murray Need to achieve; TAT Allport Trait approach; cardinal, central, secondary Cattell Crystallized fluid intelligence Kelley Personal construct theory Mishel Social-learning theory; people are not consistent (look at past performance) Gilligan Examined moral differences between boys and girls based on social rules and on ethic of caring and responsibility Ainsworth Infant attachment styles Kohlberg Moral development (preconventional, conventional, postconventional) Asch Conformity; people give obviously wrong answer Kubler-Ross Stages of death (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) Zimbardo Prison study; roles and role conflict Ekman Changes in facial expression brings about emotion like changes in the body Hubel & Wiesel Discovered feature detectors Rosenhan “fake” psychiatric patient study Vygotsky Cognitive dev. based on zone of proximal development Loftus Eyewitness testimony & constructive memory Approaches: General: Behaviorism: environmental; learning; nurture Biological: physiology; genetics; nature Cognitive: mental processes Psychoanalytical: unconscious; childhood Humanistic: freewill; basic goodness Multicultural: sociocultural; role of structure Gestalt: emphasizes the organization process in behavior; focuses on problem of perception Personality: Psychoanalytic: people are driven by instincts, largely sexual Behaviorist: behavior is personality; determined by history of reinforcement Humanistic: people are inherently good, society ruins them, people strive to satisfy a hierarchy of motives toward self-actualization Cognitive: people are rational and want to predict and control their world, personal constructs help in this process Biological: biological factors such as body type or genetics Abnormal: Psychoanalytic: emerge from initial psychological conflicts that are unconscious, often arising from childhood trauma Biomedical: traceable to physical abnormalities, biochemistry, structural defects Cognitive: results from unusual ways of thinking, inappropriate belief system Behavioral: results from faulty contingencies of reinforcement contexts contribute to the development of psychological disorders Cultural: variables such as social class, gender, and rural-urban contexts contribute to the development of psychological disorders Humanistic/Existential Model: results from failure to fulfill ones potential Treatment: Biomedical a) ECT b) Psychosurgery; ablation c) Chemotherapy d) Intensive light therapy (S.A.D.) Psychoanalytic Therapy – alleviate unconscious conflicts a) Free association b) Dream analysis c) Transference d) Symptom substitution Behavior Therapy – application of learning principles a) systematic desensitization a. in vivo desensitization b. counter conditioning c. flooding (real event) d. implosive therapy (imagine the event) e. aversion therapy Cognitive-Behavior Therapy – thoughts and behavior a) modeling and role play b) rational emotive therapy: forces a more realistic look in the evaluation circumstances c) stress inoculation therapy: retractors inappropriate thinking d) cognitive therapy: used for depression; requires the restructuring of persons invalid perceptions of self, future, and the world or experience Humanistic – focuses on getting the person to accept the responsibility for their improvement a) Roger’ client centered therapy (unconditioned positive regard) b) Frankl’s existential analysis treatment: help client gain sense of purpose and meaning c) Gestalt therapy: client comes into contact with the whole self Biomedical Treatment – includes medical procedures and medication that can help alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders a) psycho-surgery (ablation) a. surgical destruction of involved brain tissues b. obsessive-compulsive disorder b) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) a. major depression c) psychopharmacological treatment a. neuroleptics (antipsychotics) i.e. thorozine, haldol, clozeril b. antidepressants i.e. tricyclic compounds, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, prozac c. lithium carbonate (bipolar disorder) d. anxiolytics (anti anxiety) i.e. valium, benzodiazeopines The Experiment: 1. Two variables are studied for cause and effect a) Independent variable – manipulated b) Dependent variable – the response; measured c) Confounding variable – other variables that may influence results d) Experiment group – exposed to manipulation of independent variable e) Control group – an unaffected comparison group f) Subject bias
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