2011 Final exam preparation note

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Robert Gerlai

DEFINE BRIEFLY WHAT THE PHENOGENETIC QUESTIONS AND PHYLOGENETIC QUESTIONS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR ARE. Proximate QUESTION (phenogenetic causation) concerns the biological and physiological mechanisms of behaviour; How do things work? Ultimate QUESTION (phylogenetic causation) concerns the evolution and adaptive aspect of behaviour; How did it come about? EXPLAIN WHY THE ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR MAY HAVE ADVANTAGES OVER STUDYING HUMAN BEHAVIOUR. Investigation of behaviour of multiple animal species is possible and this comparative approach can be powerful for the understanding of both the evolution and the mechanisms of behaviour. Animals can be studied in the laboratory under rigorous control using methods unavailable or inappropriate for human subjects. Animal behaviour can be simpler than human behaviour and thus can be used to model some basic features of human behaviour. Animal studies can be used to model human diseases and thus help us develop treatment. Animal psychology stresses controlled laboratory conditions and focuses on general phenomena while ethology in more nature aware and focuses on species specific characteristics. TRUE Species appear to change with time TRUE Change often reflects adaptations to natural surroundings TRUE There is an overproduction of offspring and not all of the offspring survive. Only the best, the fittest will make it. TRUE , there must be selection for certain characteristics and against certain other ones. TRUE PLEASE GIVE THE DEFINITION OF FITNESS EVOLUTIONARY FITNESS Fitness is the number of viable offspring that reach reproductive age. Fitness is about how many genes an individual can successfully pass onto the next generation. Explain the three types of selection forces we discussed Directional selection occurs when a certain extreme trait becomes much more adaptive and beneficial to species survival. Ex) Darwins finches, if a niche was discovered where only deep flowers were located, the beaks of finches would switch direction towards a longer, thinner beak. Stabilizing selection occurs when neither extreme of the trait is beneficial but the middle variation of the trait is. Ex) its beneficial for rats to explore (find food and mates) but too much www.notesolution.com exploration can lead to finding many predators. Not exploring at all is also bad, leading to less food. thusmedium exploration is beneficial. Disruptive selection occurs when both extremes of the trait are adaptive and beneficial to species survival. Ex) if Darwins finches had small flowers and deep flowers; two types of beaks would be most adaptive. Please explain whether scientists think evolution has a purpose. Scientists think evolution has no purpose. It seems that organisms become better and better with time and the purpose of evolution is the betterment of the species. But evolution doesnt know the direction of these changes. It doesnt have a goal in mind. So it doesnt work towards a predetermined direction the species must move. The best ex for this is the evolution of the wing (Stephen Jay Gould) Explain how Prof Gould thinks the wing has evolved. Please try to recall and draw the figure explaining different selection forces shaping the evolution of the wing A random mutation caused the existence of small wing. It conferred a selective advantage that helped thermoregulation. (It flapped -> cooled down; in blood flow) as result, more individuals with this mutation survived as opposed to many of those who lacked this mutation. The thermoregulation ability and those who has mutation successfully passed on their genes to their offspring. Subsequent mutations causing an increase in wingspan increased thermoregulatory benefits. With a fully developed thermoregulatory organ, a new selective pressure arose when the wingspan was past that plateau mask to serve another purpose other than what was originally demonstrated. S.J. Gould theorized the above regarding its function in thermoregulation and when there was no more possible increase in those benefits, aerodynamic benefits were seen due to a new selective pressure that allowed for its evolution. Unlike simple reflexes, complex aspects of brain function, including intelligence and consciousness, cannot be explained by the activity of neurons. FALSE!!! PLEASE EXPLAIN WHAT THE ACTION POTENTIAL IS AND HOW ITS GENERATED? The AP is the change in the cells voltage resulting in an electrical signal thats passed down through the neurons; at the end of the pathway it elicits a certain response. It can be inhibitory or exhibitory. An AP can be generated in numerous ways. The integration of EPSP and IPSP would generate a potential. It all depends on the balance of inhibitory and exhibitory signals coming into the target neuron. The potential can result from temporal summation (signal coming fast one after another) or spatial summation (signal coming from numerous neurons to the target neuron. In myelinated axons, APs are conducted faster, bc only the nodes of Ranvier are involved in AP conduction. Wherever the Schwann cells wrap around the axon, the sodium and potassium ions www.notesolution.com
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