COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE
- Language and memory are two fast growing areas.
- Communication between one human and another.
- There is communication from one member of species to another member of a species.
Send information to others
- Conspecific/other species
- Con-specific communication
o “Stay away from me. I am dangerous and I’ll hurt you”.
- Interspecies communication
o The goal is to enhance survival
- These two types of communication don’t require language.
- The one sensory domain that seems to have evolved primarily in other species: Olfactory
o Chemicals in the atmosphere are important
o It seems that that is the sensory domain that evolved first to send information to others.
o Most species have two olfactory system:
Primary olfactory system: We rely on this system primarily. For example, example,
Secondary olfactory system/???? Nasal olfactory system
- These chemicals specifically change the behavior of that species – they sent out a message to that
species – conspecific to that species.
- Pheromones are detected by the olfactory system and used as communication.
o For example a sexual message.
o Pheromones are the simplest form of communication. It requires no language.
o It has evolved very early – phylogenetically old.
- Another relatively old primitive form of communication (2 to pheromones) that doesn’t require
o Expression/Gesture are the ways that human express emotions.
o Clearly, other species seem to do this.
o It seems that other species have emotions.
o Expression is difficult to assess in other species but their gestures suggest they have emotions.
- The third way of communication: language
o In humans, it is the communication of thoughts/Ideas
o Do other species have language?
o What does language mean and can other species do it?
- Types of communication: chemicals, gesture, language
- Chemical/olfactory (desires) - Expressions/gestures (emotion)
- Thoughts/ideas (language)
- Sound/phoneme (morpheme)
- Understanding (meaning)
- Syntax (structure)
- The smallest component of language is phoneme/sound. For example, “a”.
- Morpheme: sounds that convey a meaning.
- Lexicons: group of sounds that form a lexical meaning. For example, the word “bank” has multiple
meanings. The bank of a river or financial bank.
- Syntax: grammar – rules for how words go together.
o The chicken is ready for dinner.
The chicken is ready to be eaten or the chicken is ready to eat.
- We haven’t established that other species can do phonemes, morphemes or syntax.
Is learning simply conditioning? (Clever Hans)
- Clearly other species can hear sound and respond appropriately. Is that s