an emic account comes from a person within the culture---- etic= opposite
Chapter 1: Religion is an ambiguous term, with a range of meanings and references, In particular, it refers to both to speciﬁc religious traditions, and also to an
aspect of human behavior which is often assumed to be universal.
Chapter 2 Culture: Raymond Williams: category of culture that can be used: 1) culture as an ideal, 2) culture in a documentary sense, 3)Culture in a social sense.
----Emile Durkheim: religion is a form of collective consciousness that actively (through ritual) keep society together.
---Every culture (and religion) is not ﬁxed or static entity; the study of culture and religion requires us to understand that all cultures are hybrid and all religions are
syncretic. Such hybridity is at the centre of the study of religion and culture.
Chapter 3 Power: Desmond Tutu:” if someone suggests ʻthere is no connection between religion and politics, then they must be reading a different Bible to his own.”
------The key concept for Gramsci in this power dynamic is hegemony, referring to the complex means by which those who are ruled over come to accept and feel
they have a stake in the powers that are exploiting and controlling them. ----Althusser pointed out the ways in which relations of power are internalised by those
without power as ideologies, through participation in interpellation.
Chapter 4 Gender: Race, class, ethnicity, age, and sexuality, which are all important social elements that affect religious and cultural practices.
Chapter 5 Belief: Many studies of religion may be classed as either reductionist or phenomenological, and both remain focused on the idea of religion as belief.
Reductionist tend to assume religion as ʻfalseʼ, whilst phenomenologists seek to treat it as a thing in itself, as ʻsui generisʼ.
Chapter 6 Ritual: Though not all rituals are speciﬁcally religious, the study of religion and ritual highlights the viewpoint that religion is a matter of practice, and not
just belief. ----Classical studies of ritual have analyzed ritual with respect to meanings, symbols communications, performance, society, repetition, and
transformation. Each of these approaches give us certain perspectives on some of the ways in which people perform rituals, but non explains ʻwhat rituals are
Chapter 7 Text: The idea of the ʻdeath of the authorʼ does not suggest the end of authored texts, but rather that authorship gives authority and particular meanings to
a text. --- The study of religious texts requires a study of human activity, not simply written words.
Chapter 8 Contemporary Religion: Contemporary religious traditions are embedded within the processes of modernity. All religions are shaped by forces such as
post colonialism, multiculturalism, globalization, nationalism, ethnicity, and transnationalism.
---- Multiculturalism can be understood not only in terms of nationality and ethnicity, but also with regard to religion. All three parts of this ʻmulticultural triangleʼ can
change and inﬂuence each other. For many people in the west, ʻreligionʼ has become ʻspiritualityʼ - that is de-institutionalized and more individualist religion.
Which of the following do ALL religion have in common? -- Worship gods, change over time, use sacred writing, believe in life after death, discuss hygiene
• True or false: As Vine Deloria, Jr., suggest, the main problem involved with non-Indigenous scholars talking about Indigenous religion and culture is that such
scholars are outsiders to the community. False: The main problem is one of power and control (derry 331).
Which of the following two statements would Malory Nye agree with? a) The religion that a person practices will always be inﬂuenced by that personʼs
culture. b) Religion is what people believe, not what they do. c) The academic study of religion can tell us the truth about god(s). d) The academic study of
religion can prove that religion is not something that comes from beyond humans. e) The “world religions” approach is problematic because it tends to
classify different traditions (e.g., Buddhism, Christianity, etc.) as entirely distinct from one another. (Nye 13)
One lesson that Dr. Clare Brantʼs story of the Cree/Mohawk gathering teaches us is that we salways look at others through te eyes of our own culture/cultures.
• The author of The Wizard of Oz once called the extermination of Native American people.
• True of false: Nye agrees with Althusserʼs view that it is virtually impossible to escape the power of ideology, which is the power to trap us into subjugation while
at the same time making us think we are free. False: Agrees with Gramsci that ideology is never comletely successful (Nye 67)
As outlined by Nye, criticisms of religion that focus on gender include consideration of which of the following: a) Many sacred texts were written by men.
b) The gods of many religions are male. c) Sacred texts have been publicly interpreted by men. d) Womenʼs participation in religious practices means
participation in their own oppression. e)Religions have been profoundly oppressive and harmful to women.
• “Aborigines donʼt own the land. They belong to it.” This statement may seem harmless, but it is actually similar to a legal concept called terra nullius that was
used to deprive many Indigenous people of their land rights.
• According to Nye, considerations of gender highlight some of the weaknesses of traditional ways of studying religion (such as the focus on sacred rituals,
beliefs, and texts).
• Why might someoneʼs stated beliefs not necessarily help you understand that personʼs behavior? b) There is a difference between “cognitive” beliefs and
“affective” beliefs. c) There may be reasons for certain behaviors that have nothing to do with beliefs.
• A major aspect of cognitive approaches to the study of religion involves reference to the study of the human brain.
• The German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach supported the idea proposed that,Xenophanes: if horses could draw, their gods would look like horses.
• According to Edward Tylor, religion is “the belief in spiritual beings.”
According to Nye, what is problematic about the idea that religion in general is primarily about belief? -- This idea universalizes a primarily Christian concept. ---
Some traditions may in fact put more emphasis on different aspects of religious behavior, such as ritual.
• We will arrive on earth knowledgeable. We will arrive on earth in beauty. We are searching for knowledge continuously.
• Victor Turner--Symbols are the lowest form of ritual. Catherine Bell--We should avoid using the term “ritual” if possible. Maurice Bloch--Ritual is a type of
language. Emile Durkheim--The performance of ritual creates relationships between people in a society. Arnold can Gennep--Ritual actions often work to
transform peopleʼs concepts of time, space, and society.
• According to Derry, which of the following statements regarding Indigenous sacriﬁcial rituals are true? -The lodge for the Sun Dance ritual is linked to the
creation of the world. --If necessary, the Nuer people of Africa can replace the sacriﬁcial ox with a cucumber.
Michel Foucault--- What we see as the author is a creation of our own understanding, a creation that helps us to give meaning to a text.
Roland Barthes-- It is in material of everyday life that we can best understand both culture and religion.
Jacques Derrida-- Language not only describes reality, but in fact there is no reality outside of language.
Judith Fetterley--- What is considered “classic” literature consists mainly of works written by and for men.
Hugh Pyper-- The Bible has exerted more inﬂuence on Western culture than any other book.
Max Muller-- Religious texts represent the authentic doctrine of a religionʼs founders and their disciples.
on German culture.In his later years, Luther became strongly antisemitic, writing that Jewish homes should be destroyed, their synagogues burned, money conﬁscated and liberty curtailed.
These statements have contributed to his controversial status. He wrote the 95 thesis an emic account comes from a person within the culture---- etic= opposite
• Derryʼs text: --Despite their associations with chaos, trickster ﬁgures bring a kind of order into the world. ---Relationships are a central aspect of many Indigenous
stories about both creation and the afterlife.
• There was a Dreaming man named Linjiplinjipi of the Jungari subsection at this site. He had adorned his body with Ngarlu and was spinning hairstring.
• The components of “ﬁeld of vision” that S. Brent asserts we must take into account when considering the meaning of an image? --The historical context of