Lecture # Song Theorist/Theories/Ideas
1 Incubus - Dig *Clifford Geertz - Thick description
E.B. Tylor - primitive = more original (More primitive a religion is, the more original it is.)
*Emile Durkheim - religion as a social glue (Brings society together)
*Max Weber - religion as a social motivator (Time of the bourgeois/ Industrial age)
Friedrich Schleiermacher - Feeling
Rene Descartes - cognitive ergo sum (I think therefore I am)
Rudolph Otto - mysterium tremendum
* Theorist dealing with functionalism
2 Wu Tang Clan - Anders Breivik - not a theorist, however he was a subject of study. Norwegian killer (77 casualties)
C.R.E.A.M. Ancient Religions - believed in a almighty deity. Consequences for actions. Rituals of purification. Sacred Texts
J.Z. Smith - no essential core to religion. Rather it is a cluster of features, and certain religions can overlap, but
not be exactly the same
Malory Nye - Religion is a plural. Religions are practiced differently in different countries
Pastor Theresa - Was an atheist, yet strived to help the poor. Is she considered religious?
Peter Berger - Externalization (Humans objectifying their inner thoughts.) Objectivation (Product takes form)
Internalization (The product affects humans) Example: Churches
Sigmund Freud - Relationship between father and son, is the same as between deity and there people
3 Culture Lady Gaga - Clifford Geertz - culture is like a web. Humans weaves culture/web but is also bounded by it
Raymond Williams - Ideals/Elite Culture . People/products that are "cultured" are elite.
Pierre Bourdieu - Habitus. The lifestyle, norms and expectations of people
Stuart Hall - Popular culture. Contrasts elite culture. Is what is well-liked by the masses.
4 Power Rage against Panopticon - constant surveillance, where the people are not aware if they are being watched, but operate under
Machines - Wake the assumption that they are.
Althusser - repressive state of apparatus (police) Ideological state apparatus (Education) and interpellation
(active participation of self exploitation, through delusion of control)
Foucault - Power + Knowledge + Discourse
Gramschi - Hegemony - the delusion that power relations are natural. Individuals are exploited into thinking that
they have a sliver of control in government control matters.
5 Gender 311 - Amber Androcentrism - The idea that masculinity
Gender Roles in religious societies. How many religious leaders have been female?
Patriarchy = "Male Rule"
Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza - Hermeneutics of suspicion. Feminist theory allows people to see the world in a new perspective. Androcentric doctrines fail to reflect historical realities.
Judith Butler - Gender as discourse, "not natural". Gender/sex does not equal to behaviour
Mary Daly - "Castrate God"
6 Atheist KORN - Coming Charles Darwin - evolution by natural selection (Closed system, humans are animals)
Christopher Hitchens (A) - Diseases comes from an angry god, personification of everything around a person.
Answer to natural phenomenon. Religion = Belief. Anything science = true, anything not science = false. Belief
leads to absurd notions, if you accept that homo sapiens have been around for 10000 years, then you have to
accept that God sit idly by while he watched homo sapiens. A few thousand years later the deity decides to
intervenes in ONE particular area of the world.
Daniel Dennett (A) -Asking religious people to put aside their religious beliefs aside to converse on a different
level. Polarizing effect - if you're going to think, you must ditch your religious belief. Explicitly declines a "god
say so" argument
Friedrich Nietzsche - Christian God and civilization. Christian concept of god caters to the weak. God will help
you. Religion will cater to one's weakness and keeps one down.
Karl Marx - religion as an opiate; religion will be useless in classless society (Example Matrix, red and blue
Sam Harris (A) - Is too much faith the problem? Communism, Hitler's Nazi Germany, North Korea have all done
things based on their beliefs. Connects atheism with morality (Don't have to be religious to be moral. Doesn't
matter who says moral things, the person is moral.) Not there isn't a God, but there is no reason to believe in
Sigmund Freud - religion is a delusion; father figure; solution = must grow up
Richard Dawkins (A) - Everyone has the need to understand. Religion is the first explanation for religion. First
= worst = superstition. Freud (Religion = delusion. Solution is growing up). Freudian way of thinking. Focus on
faith, polarizing religious faith with scientific reasoning. Faith is a blind concept
7 Belief Crash Test Difference between "being religious" and believing. The assumption that belief = authentic religion is false.
"Mmm mmm Indigenous Hawaiian Traditions. Akua (Supreme Deity)
Donald Wiebe (1981, 1999) and Russell McCutcheon (1997). They both contest the assumption that sacredness