RLG101H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Mantra, Kundalini, Inanna

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Published on 26 Oct 2011
4. Describe the ASCETIC movements of the ‘world-renouncing
(sramana)’ type that developed between the 8th and 4th
centuries BCE. (pg 81)
- rise of upanisads, jainism and buddhism - common heritage of
mental discipline and meditation with principles from veda
rejecting and veda accepting traditions
- new ideology of renunciation is where jnana (knowledge) is
given priority over action (karma)
- detachment from the social and material is through the practise
of tapas, celibacy, poverty and methods of mental training (yoga)
- this type of training leads to higher states of consciousness and
liberation from action and rebirth
- life is characterized by dukhda (suffering) and suffering will lead
to moksa is a form of spiritual knowledge (jnana)
- spread of disease probably lead to the growth of the ascetic
movements and life of suffering
- spiritual salvation cannot be attained due to high caste birth but
a person who understands the nature of existence according to
- materialists (lokayata) rejected reincarnation and spiritual
- ajivikas rejected free will
- Buddhists found a middle way between austerity and
- Jains – extreme mortification to be detached
- common to all ascetic movements – rejection of Vedic revelation
and hostility towards orthodox Brahmanism
6. Compare and contrast the ‘technologies or disciplines of
asceticism’ or “yoga” which can lead to MOKSA (spiritual
salvation). (pg 63)
- renunciation, transmigration, karma and liberation are paths to
liberation from the world of suffering
- theistic traditions: liberation is granted by the higher power one
is devoted to
- non-theistic traditions: liberation happens when you detach self
from materialistic world through ascetism and meditation leading
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