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CheatSheet Quiz In Class.docx

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Kenneth Derry

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Chapter 1: - Pros: religions-clear def.,good starting point. Religion-board, inclusive, flexible - The contemporary world is shaped by religions - Cons: religions-ignores diversity, exclude some traditions. Religion-many defs, excludes some traditions - Religion: something humans do, so study of religion = primarily concerned with ppl & cultures Chapter 2: - Major religious traditions in the world do encourage practitioners to reflect on - Culture; 2 meanings: system/way of life and cultural products and engage with abstract & supra-mundane (spiritual) aspects of reality. Practitioners: may consider the abstract & transcendent issues to be most - Raymond Williams: 3 ways culture used: ideal, documentary sense and social sense central aspects of their religion - Elite Culture: Often used to describe an ideal, in an elitist way- Ideal culture: - Religion = cross cultural:-how certain religions are different in other countries used to mark out and distinguish particular types of product which are through to be high quality & considerable artistic worth - Require element of scholarly agnosticism;-should only claim competence in field - Documentary level of culture: study of culture should not only focus on elite of experience which known = human world type of culture (like Shakespeare) but also on other cultural artists and products - Human centered approach: study of religion as human practice, activity not (like Madonna) god centered or faith centered(theology) - Stuart Hall: suggested 3 ways we talk about popular: 1) popular as well like by masses 2) popular as simply what people do 3) popular as being in contrast to - Theology: study of religion on faith centered basis (insider) dominant (or elite) culture - Religious life = cultural life, one’s religion emerges from one’s culture - Consumer commercialism: religious cultural products distributed for purpose of money - what makes religion different: having a distinct identity - Mass appeal is bound up with consumer commercialism - Secularization theory: world becoming less religious - John Fiske: describes interaction b/w popular and mass appeal & mass culture - Sigmund Freud: believed religion is a misguided & unhealthy outcome of problems inherent in a boy working on relationship w/ father- his ideas about - Adorno and Horkheimer: saw popular culture as form of ideology - People have been selective in which cultural products they make own: choose how humans become religious depended on ideas of behavior specific to his culture religion where similar to Christianity & Judaism cultural product that they invest w/ meaning & significance - Religion:- noun: universal aspect of human life & specific religions refer to - Popular religion: religious worlds in which people live & practice their religion particular groups and traditions, adj: used in general sense to describe a type of - Orthodoxy: what religious institutions and leaders expect or require them to do thing or behavior or experiences, verb:not a thing, but an action, more of a process of doing - Analyst of popular religion - Steven Sutcliffe: popular culture can be understood - World religions approach also leaves considerable geographical gaps. as a mode of doing religion which can take place in a number of different ways and contexts. Both with and without institutions - small-scale traditions: more geographically bound, less globally impact - Popular culture are nearly always associated with mass consumption by social - Argued: secular ideologies such as Marxism or Communism developed to fulfil groups who have relatively less power the roles and functions that were previously filled by religion - Pierre Bourdieu: --culture as habitus --highlighted how cultural taste and social - Nationalism has provided new sets of god class mark each other out-person’s reading and experience of a particular form of culture is influenced by who they are, what they know, and what they have been - Civil Religion: seeks to create sense of religion that binds together those of many taught to see -problem of relativism: problematic because it says that all claims different religious backgrounds as well as none are equal, no claim is more correct than another - Conventional religions: all these substitutes for the functions or role that has - Clifford Geertz: religion as cultural system: argued that we should understand been taken. This way called: quasi-religion for a post-traditional, post-modern religion as system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive and and seculariesed world long lasting moods and motivations in men—process of growing up - Problem of culture: not everyone is fixed or has static entity, imbalance of power, - Althusser: ideological apparatus: 2 particular aspects of ideology: 1) how tends to ignore political, subcultures – reflect power differences ruling order is imposed 2) how such ideology works at the level of the individual person.Argue that there are 2 forms of state apparatus that enable ruling group to - Culture is about hybridity, mixing up change and external influences exercise power over population: 1) repressive state apparatus (army, police, prison…) 2) ideological state apparatus, more diffuse and heterogeneous - Resistance either on the basis of race/ethnicity - Hebdige - Argue that ideology works through process of interpellation - As Vine Deloria, Jr., suggests, the main problem involved with non-Indigenous scholars talking about Indigenous religion and culture is one of power and - Marx’s concept of ideology -Interpellation: person is not a victim participating control
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