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University of Toronto Mississauga
Kenneth Derry

Require element of scholarly agnosticism;-should only claim Popular religion: religious worlds in which people live & class would see their exploitation clearly—religion does dirty competence in field of experience which known = human world practice their religion work of keeping oppressed content with their oppression Human centered approach: study of religion as human practice, Orthodoxy: what religious institutions and leaders expect or Antonio Gramsci: concept of hegemony: referring to complex activity not god centered require them to do means by which those are ruled over come to accept & feel they have a stake in the powers that are exploiting and controlling Theology: study of religion on faith centered basis (insider) Analyst of popular religion - Steven Sutcliffe: popular culture them. can be understood as a mode of doing religion which can take Secularization theory: world becoming less religious place in a number of different ways and contexts. Both with and Althusser: ideological apparatus: 2 particular aspects of without institutions ideology: 1) how ruling order is imposed 2) how such ideology Sigmund Freud: believed religion is a misguided & unhealthy works at the level of the individual person. Argue that there are outcome of problems inherent in a boy working on relationship Popular culture are nearly always associated with mass w/ father- his ideas about how humans become religious consumption by social groups who have relatively less power 2 forms of state apparatus that enable ruling group to exercise depended on ideas of behavior specific to his culture religion power over population: 1) repressive state apparatus (army, where similar to Christianity & Judaism Pierre Bourdieu: --culture as habitus --highlighted how cultural police) 2) ideological state apparatus, more diffuse and heterogeneous World religions approach also leaves considerable geographical taste and social class mark each other out-person’s reading and gaps. small-scale traditions: more geographically bound, less experience of a particular form of culture is influenced by who Marx’s concept of ideology -Interpellation: person is not a they are, what they know, and what they have been taught to see victim participating in a false consciousness. Freely choice and globally impact -problem of relativism: all claims are equal acting on an illusion.Athusser: interpellation: making people act in an obvious way, people act under ideology without realizing Civil Religion: seeks to create sense of religion that binds Clifford Geertz: religion as cultural system: argued that we together those of many different religious backgrounds as well should understand religion as system of symbols which acts to that their seemingly free actions are so controlled as none establish powerful, pervasive and long lasting moods and motivations in men—process of growing up Max Weber: argument about rise of modern capitalism. Conventional religions: all these substitutes for the functions or Protestantism created capitalism, but Protestantism was factor in role that has been taken. This way called: quasi-religion for a James Clifford: challenge the assumption that culture and place profound social, cultural and economic change and not merely post-traditional, post-modern and seculariesed world are inseparable (travelling culture) product of change --problem try to isolate religion too much from other cultural activities (Culture ↓) Emile Durkheim: where it was that religion came from and what Michel Foucault: panopticon had a circular structure with cells Raymond Williams: 3 ways culture used: ideal, documentary role it gives people and argued that cases demonstrated close arrange on the outside of the circle, and an office for the prison sense and social sense correlation between religious activities and social organization. guard in the center. Power of panopticon was not so much in Religion has 2 very important functions: 1) made people get Elite Culture: Often used to describe an ideal, in an elitist way- together (form of social glue that created social solidarity) 2) potential labor saving it provided, but rather the way in which Ideal culture: used to mark out and distinguish particular types gave people a way of understanding and seeing society, since it the principle of constant surveillance (exerting control) produces of product which are through to be high quality & considerable was through religious identities that people came to have social a profound internalization of power and subjugation identities. 2 fundamental ideas: 1) religion is very direct artistic worth Power shapes discourses: knowledge is power, discourse way of relationship with social and cultural factor 2) understand talking abt the world. Through discourse knowledge is Documentary level of culture: study of culture should not only religion, one doesn’t look at content of religion, but how constructed focus on elite type of culture (like Shakespeare) but also on religion functions and is practiced in wider social and cultural other cultural artists and products (like Madonna) context (Gender ↓): Stuart Hall: suggested 3 ways we talk about popular: 1) popular (Power ↓) Darlene Juschka: some fields of study are less receptive to as well like by masses 2) popular as simply what people do 3) feminist perspectives popular as being in contrast to dominant (or elite) culture Desmond Tutu: if someone suggests there is no connection between religion and politics, they must be reading a different Androcentricism: assumption that maleness, male perspective Consumer commercialism: religious cultural products Bible to his own and experiences are most important distributed for purpose of money. Mass appeal is bound up with consumer commercialism Karl Marx: religion as ideology: Relationship between social Mary Daly: concept of belief in male deity leads to sexual division and the material world. Contemporary society was inequalities, women suffer in men control John Fiske: describes interaction b/w popular and mass appeal & mass culture determined by economic relations: based on profound Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza: any study of religion should be inequalities between those who controlled economic resources based on feminist hermeneutics of suspicion Adorno and Horkheimer: saw popular culture as form of and those who didn’t, access to the means pf production: controlJudith Butler: we understand our bodies certain way due to over others = this overall system: mode of production/capitalist. discourse (e.g. media)  biology = gender ideology 2 main classes: working and ruling- if no religion = working Psychoanalytic Concept: persons are not ready made souls inserted in bodies by god Asad and Spivak: Theory ofAgency: how individuals behave particular religions are based on the transformation of human Maurice Bloch: relationship between rituals and communication b/c of social, cultural and religious forces that act upon them – existence which is called salvation or liberation. Eliade: – argues ritual is a type of language act as agents of change Phenomenological –history of religions. The scared: exists in Luce Irigaray :language = symbolic, reflects gendered and of itself and which is experienced by humans through Emile Durkheim: religion has binding role for societies – perspective (e.g. mankind) particular manifestations. Reductionists tend to assume religion religion brings people together Hala Shukrallah: women represent “traditional values” as ‘false’, whilst phenomenologists seek to treat it as a thing in Edmund Leach: repeating of ritual elements is a function of the (Belief ↓): itself, as ‘sui generis’ way in which rituals are communicative Ed
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