PART A: LECTURE NOTES
1. Max Muller:
– In 1948 he taught European language and literature at Oxford University.
- He also translated the 6 volumes of the Rigveda
- The founding father of the Religionswissenschaft which is the science of
religion it stressed the linguistical study of textual sources.
- Edited sacred books of the east (50vols)
- Founded Phenomenological
- Studied Indian philosophy under S.N Dasgupta
- Brought together linguistical analysis of texts: anthropological and sociological
studies principle writings
- Founded a new international journal of comparative historical studies called
“History of religion”
Wilfred C. Smith:
- studied comparative scriptures
- published the meaning and end of religion, stressed the end of “ism”
- founded the institute of Islamic studies at McGill University published Islam in
2. Characteristics of god in Genesis 1:
- created earth (cosmos) from chaos
- God Elohim is Plstal;
-he is the 1 cause (spiritual principle) because if God was created, God
would not be God.
- efficient cause not material cause, which meant that he did not come from
- God is transcended but God is Imminent in his revelation meaning that God
revealed himself to us through the Prophets but remained apart from us.
3. symbolism of water in Genesis 1:
- is Chaos, which is a monster or as the qualities of coldness, sterlity, quiescence,
repression and restraint, the situation which inhibits creation.
- it was a blend of pre-existent matter to which God eventually brought order
- Potter – Pot, where clay was made into a pot that of which can be compared to
the story of genesis where water (chaos) was built into a firmament that brought
about order to the cosmos.
5. Tehom: Deep waters that can be called Chaos
Tiamat: Wicket dragon Relationship:
Tiamat the wicked dragon enters a battle with Markuk (God of Wind), Marduk
sliced Tiamat and separated her body into the water at the top and below (Heaven
and Earth) and this theoretical myth symbolizes God exposing himself in the
beginning and separated the water above from the water below creating the heaven
and the earth.
6. Story of Creation: from And God said…
- God first created light from his words out of nothingness and he saw that the
light the light was good. Second, God created a firmament (Dome) in the midst
of the water to separate the waters from the waters and he called the water
above, Heaven and he gather water below which is the dry land and called it
7. Theory of Time:
- the Quote In the Beginning implies that time is a linear factor ie. There is a
beginning and an end of time. Unlike the Hindus who believe in Cyclical
timeline. There is a creation and an end to time.
8. The fruit of what Tree: the tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil
He must not eat the fruit because:
- he would DIE and also that would become a direct defiance of Gods order.
The word to Die does not mean death of Adam but meaning that Adams
innocence would be diminished bringing about the sin of humanity.
9. Symbol of Serpent: was pre-existent evil meaning that it was evil by nature. This
automatically cause an assumption that God must of created Evil since it is to our
understanding that God was the creator of all. However, in Christianity and Islam
the serpent symbolizes Iblis (Satan). But as Christianity and Islamic religion put it,
the Fallen Angel (Devil) created Evil.
10. characteristics of God in the laws of Manu:
- he was a spiritual principle
- often refered to as a Male either Ishvara or Vishnu
- he was the first and the efficient cause and material cause
- Difference was that in genesis 1, God was not the material cause meaning
no one created God.
11. Symbol of Waters in laws of Manu means:
-the water represents the Goddess which is a womb (material cause) that
contained the seed of Bramah the creator of everything within the cosmos
(stars, moon). The water also symbolizes the chaos.
12. symbolism of the Seed: - was the spirit of the God Ishvara. The seed became the Golden Egg, like the sun
in Splendor. Within that egg the cosmos was Born and within that egg Brahma
(singular) the lesser God than Ishvara and Devi was the first born of creation.
13. Theory of time - SAMSAR