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University of Toronto Mississauga
Alireza Haghighi

Schimmel 73-89: THEOLOGY & PHILOSOPHY: TOPICS ISLAM VS CHRISTIANITY H Mentioned in the Quran Mentioned in the bible- - acknowledges the virgin birth Christian dogma differs -does not agree with him being -crucifixion is accepted called “God’s son” -believe in redemption - he is the last great prophet before Prophet Muhammad (SWS) -represents healer, model of love, poverty and humility -Mary= one of the best women that ever lived on earth - unlike other children of Adam she was not touched by satan - sura 4/157= they did not kill him and did not crucify him but made someone resembling him - does not accept redemption because Islam does not know the concept of original sin Prophet Muhammad (SWS) The remark about paraklet in Prophecies about the future bible regarded as a reference to appearance of Muhammad are Muhammad for sura 61/6 found in several passage of the speaks of Ahmad=prophet Bible Muhammad SWS -eg. the promise that the paraklet -Muslim scholars believe in will come as a consoler sometime Greek “perikletos”= prophet after Christ Muhammad SWS Influences Christian dogma influence Islamic Quran hold same position in dogma development Islamic dogmatics as Christ in eg. logos such as “ the Word of Christianity God” , “born not created” influenced Islamic theories about Quran -i.e. this is regarded by the Muslim as the uncreated Word of God. Eg. Inliberation= the “Word Eg. “ the word become Flesh” become Book” - “the prophet sent to gentiles” was interpreted as “illiterate” but the prophet had to be a vessel that did not have any external knowledge for the word’s inliberation just like Mary had to be virgin in order to be a pure vessel for the Word’s incarnation - Problem with Quran’s nature: Din wad aula= religion and State= who is the imam, the leader of the community in prayer and war? (look below chart for further explanation) Problem with Quran’s nature: Din wad aula= religion and State= who is the imam, the leader of the community in prayer and war? Basically what happened was that Ali Ab Talib=4 caliph + cousin dn son in law of prophet Muhammad SWS had to face his opponent Mu’awiya= the future Umayyad caliph - Ali feared that they might lose so he asked his soldiers t place copies or atleast pages of the Quran on their weapons so that the battle might be decided through God’s word. -Ali accepted the negotiation even though his victory was near - this CAUSED one group of Muslims to withdraw: aka KHARIJITESbecause they questioned “ to what extent the Imaam, the leader of the community, was to be judged according to his ethical qualities ( main question btw faith and work) -Kharijites:= aka ethical maximalists opposed Ali instead of completely relying upon God’s decision they accepted a human stratagem (trick) - they accept no faith without works= claim that faith can increase by good works -CULTIC actions have to be performed with external purity and clear conscience -eg. a person who commits major sin cannot be a Muslim and deserves eternal punishment in Hell (eg. Idolatry, withcraft, murder, embezzlement of the goods of orphans, usury, desertion and rape of a Muslim woman) vs. IBADI =Non-conformist Kharijites: ppl of the Sunna and the Jama’a -small group of believers who mercilessly fought against those who seemed to be too lax(laidback) - were extreme in applying the Quranic command to “order the good and restrain ppl fromm doing evil” -felt that they were the only true believers while all others were due to their lukewarm attitude, infidels and had to be killed - the caliph has to be an absolute impeccable Muslim -survived mainly in areas of Islamic world such as North Africa + Oman Murjities: -opposed viewpoints of Kharijites ( who wanted to be excluded) -believed that a person’s character had to be left to God faith could neither increase or diminish by works but is a matter of the heart - even a grave sinner is not an infidel and therefore does not deserve eternal punishment in hell -However you will find Quran and hadiths supporting all opinions. Jabrities= small group of early Muslims= Jabr= pressure -believe everything is predestined  pleased a lot of Ummayyad rulers because it excused their political actions as simply being predestined Vs. Qadarites: decree =”ruling” - admit that human beings have the capacity to act according to their own will and thus become responsible for their actions Murtazila= BTW KHARIJITES AND MUJITIES:- “those who refrain who separate themselves” -took an intermediate attitude concerning the grave sinner according to them= he is neither a believer nor an unbeliever -were known as the “FREE-thinkers” - in ethics sided Qadariyaa that is they admit free will and human responsibility - their main problems was to protect Islam from the dualistic influences that began to seep in from Iran -had to compromise btw the simple pious tradition (eg. like in medina from days of prophet) and the exigencies of a refined civilization influenced by Hellenistic traditions -muslims exposed to a lot of culture, literary, political and religious tradition that were new in some ares.= problematic this lead to more and clear interpretation of Quran and hadiths: - they formed:Tauhid=the need to formulate the profession of God’s unity primordial They emphasized the need to formulate the profession of God’s unity= tauhid= is the most decisive form possible - for them Tauhid=any similarity btw God and his creation is impossible vs. the Iranian dualist tendencies that talked about “ God’s face” seem to have been understood literally. Such Quranic Anthropomorphism= is attribution of human form or other characteristics to anything other than a human being  the Mu'Tazilites insisted has to be interpreted allegorically=metaphorically/figuratively/symbolically. As for the divine attributed, they are identical with the divine essence. Nothing that is co-eternal could exist with God, for that would an impariment of his unity and unicity. Hence, it has to be postulated th
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