RLG204H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Jinn, Eternal Sin, Wahy

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12 Mar 2018
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Week 3 Article
The Basic Beliefs and Worship Practices of Islam
Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith
Shahada La ilaha illa Allah. Mummad rasul Allah (“There is no god but God and Muhammad
is the messenger of God”)
This testimony is the closest thing to a creed in Islam.
A person can say this once in their life and then is freely a believer to become Muslim, and then
all the other elements of belief and prescribed duties become necessary to whoever has testified
by means of the shahada
Basic doctrines of Islam can be classified under 5 headings which together are called iman
“Faith”
Faith
It is the absolute unity of God
Technical word for monotheism- the belief that there is only one God- is tawhid, which means
“making [God] one” by devotion and refusal to compromise on this point
Ex. Is Bilal exclaiming “One! One!”
Another name for Muslims is muwahhidun, “Unitarians”, or “upholders of divine unity
A belief like the Christian Trinity is not accepted and offensive to Muslims because suggest
shirk, the “associating” of something with God, which is an unforgivable sin in Islam
Belief in Angels
Believing in angels and their important work as messengers and helpers of God
Most Great angels are good creatures of God except one is evil; Ibilis, or Satan. He was out
casted from heaven because he refused to bow down to Adam
Iblis has a lot of evil followers
Angels have no sex and they are made of light, but humans are made of clay
Several angels mentioned in the quran: Jibril/Gabriel; Mikal/Micheal, Harut and Marut.
There are also supernatural beings made of fire called Jinn. They can posses people.
Someone who is possessed by a jinn is considered majnun, “bejinned”, meaning “insane
Jinn are much lower than angels, in most respects like humans. Quran mentions some of them
as been converted to Islam.
They are feared by humans because they are associated with spooky and uncanny dimensions
of life
Belief in angels also includes other supernatural beings.
Prophets and Scriptures
Revealed scriptures and prophetic messengers
Muhammed was last in line of prophets who had brought scriptures to their people
All prophets received their revelations from God by a wahy, “suggestion” or “idea-word
inspiration”
All scriptures are fully God’s work, pre Islam, Christians and Jews, had changed their original
message to suit their own ways
The Quran is the purest extant scripture on earth because it’s been preserved from tampering
Sent by god as a mercy to humankind in hopes to be brought back to original and tru faith of
Abraham
Moses-Torah, David the Zabur-Psalms, Jesus-Evangel or Gospel
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Quran lists some 25 prophets in line from Adam to Muhammed: Adam, Nuh, Idris, Ibrahim,
Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub, Dawud, Sulaiman, Ayyub, Yusuf, Musa, Harun, Ilyas, al-yasa, Yunus, Lut,
Hud, Shu’ayb, Dhu’l-kifl, Zakariyya, Yahya, Isa, Muhammed.
The Final Judgement
Belief of final judgment, cluster around Islam eschatology; concerned with death, judgment,
and the final destiny of the soul and of humankind.
Many specifics of Quran teachings have parallels in other Near Eastern traditions, especially
Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity
Doctrine for final judgment in Islam follows the doctrine of tawhid, it reveals the moral nature
of God in relation to his creation
The judgment is a test of tawhid, but the divine unity also follows and subsists beyond “last
things”
Faithful devotees of God and his true religion survive and triumph on day of judgement,
because they are included within divine scheme of salvation and reward
The Last Judgment and the Quran
o The last Judgment has many names in the Quran; the “Day of Doom”, the “Last Day”, the Day
of Resurrection, “the hour”, “the Day of Distinguishing” and others
o Final judgment period happens swiftly, starting with a pearl of thunder, a shout, or a trumpet
blast. Natural world is then turned upside down
o All of the usual and economic and social customs and processes will be interrupted and ended
on the Last Day
o Then all humans, dead or alive, will be put before God, the judge
o was an unsettling belief to Arabians because they didn’t normally believe in bodily resurrection
before Islam
o each human being has a record book that will be handed to them in either right or left hand,
symbolic association of the right with goodness and purity and left with evil and pollution
o Quran insist that’s every human stand before God alone, no one can intervene between God
and a person without God’s permission
o Muhammed will be able to intervene in any case especially when sin is great
o Final outcome is either eternal paradise- Jannah, “the garden”- or eternal hell -al nar “the fire”.
The Divine Decree and Predestination
God orders and determines all that happens from all eternity and records our acts and destinies
God is far above what his creations can imagine or comprehend, and his acts cannot be
measured by human resources
The Doctrines and Orthodoxy
o Islamic orthodoxy is “right belief” in Arabic iman, “faith or belief”
o Someone who has faith is a mu’min.
o In Quran faith is regarded clearly as superior to surrender, Islam, there is no faith without
surrender, but there can be surrender without faith
o Belief is required as well as surrender but it is as much a gift as humankind’s doings
o Orthodoxy not right term to describe Islam’s sense of right religion. Instead use orthopraxy,
means “right practice”. It comes much closer to the reality of Muslim devotion and obedience of
God.
o Islam is closer in spirit to Judaism than Christianity; Islam and Judaism view religion as way of
life and a ritual patterning of that life under Gods lordship. Christianity stresses doctrinal clarity
and understanding means of creeds, dogmas, and theologies
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