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RLG204 (final exam study notes).docx

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Alireza Haghighi

RLG204H5SFinal Exam Study NotesRLG204H5SIntroduction to IslamFinal Exam Study NotesLecture NotesLecture 1 Introduction to IslamReligion Lover follower passion ritual order sense of unityoFunction For social spiritual and political lifeoIslam Anthropological ethic philosophicaloIssue of role model in politics social life importantoPrinciple of Islam fasting pilgrimage etcWhy Study IslamFor issues involving national security meaning of life and energy source ie oil in the Middle East Cultural identity and western identityChallenges Iran Iraq Afghanistan Somalia Sudan Yemen Islamic nationsCountries fight under the name of IslamIssue between Afghanistan and PakistanProblem Taliban is succeeding in mobilizing troopsIssue of Muslim Population where Muslim have activityThe role of media and money of ArabsRole of Civilization Latin Greek RomeImpact on art philosophyOrientalismoThe study of Islam in West Islam as a colonial poweroIslam as a religion against ChristianityoImage of Islam religion of barbarians terrorism and issue associated with oil productTranslation of Islamic text to the WestSufismRLG204H5SFinal Exam Study NotesoTranslation of philosophical debateoFocus in West spirituality and philosophyDifficulties in IslamoThe ambiguity inherent in every religion and the problem of politicsoReading and interpreting textsoReaders have different backgrounds questions experiencesoFundamentalist set order thoughtoGeneral issues lead to ambiguityoDifferent Muslims with different interestoIslam is a type of salvationoFighting for ideology is a type of salvationoSalvation is capitalism for Western worldProblems of politic in IslamoPolitics different for different groupsoIslam is against Western interestsoSummer Huntington explains 8 civilizations against Western civilization and explains Western society benefitsIslamaphobic and Fundamentalists have similar rulesoEliminate the otheroSpace of hatred among mediaoWe should connect every issue toward these groups ie bombingsHow Islam was bornoHistorical geographical sociological contextPreIslamic Arabia The Era of JahiliyyaThe Arabian Peninsula Mainly rock and desert approximately 700 miles wide and 1000 miles longIt is dominated by desert and steppe area Survival a huge achievement for those people On its coasts there were numerous ports They were part of the trade network which linked India to Mesopotamia to East Africa Egypt and the Mediterranean Important town and cities Mecca center for trade and commerce Yathrib Medina which was an important agricultural settlement An important event that changed the demographic structure of the peninsulaThe bursting and subsequent collapse of the great dam of Marib in the Yemen The inhabitants were forced to migrate northwards Relative isolation in the North Untouched by the civilizing influence of the two great empires of the region the RLG204H5SFinal Exam Study NotesByzantine Empire and the Persian Empire Formed a tribal society based on pastoral nomadism This was the Arabia of Mohammads day Social Organization and Identity before Prophet MohammedoSocial relation state of war revengeoState of War when there is no rulesoMafia exist because of power and interestoLoyalty lead to protectionoIn state of war issue of hypocrisyoIslamic Law is against killing for power and profitoMessage of Muhammad Loyalty to Allah honesty against hypocrisy against inequality destroys society etcIn seventh century AD oOnly few people lived in the urban cities oThe majority of the people lived in tribes oThe principal sources of livelihood herding agriculture trade and raiding from intertribal wars Intertribal warfare oA longestablished activity oProfound effect on the social cultural and moral structure of the Arabs oExample its effect on gender relation and the role of women in the society oWomen were deemed a liability rather than an asset oTherefore the prevalent act of femicide among Arabs which Mohammad banned when he became the prophet oYet wrong to assume that these wars were the signs of lawlessness and barbarism oThese wars were governed by clear guidelines and rulesoThese wars had clear economic motivation Tribes forged ties with one another Social organization and identity rooted in membership in an extended family A grouping of several related families created a clan A grouping of several clans constituted a tribeEach tribe headed and led by a chief sheikh Family lineage important concern of the Arabs The preservation of family clan and tribal purity and honor more important than anything elseFamily lineage important in dividing people into higher or lower class Arabs placed great emphasis on tribal ties group loyalty and solidarity asabiyya oThese ties the source of power for a clan or tribeoGroup loyalty the unwritten law of society No central political authority the threat of family or group revenge or the law of retaliation
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