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exam set 1

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Alireza Haghighi

Short Answers3 Discuss the Prophets life by outlining the three stages of his life before prophecy after he became the Prophet before Hijra and after Hijra Make sure to provide examples of the Prophets life both as the man and as the ProphetMuhammad the Men Main AttributesAn orphan an honest man lived humbly a sensitive soul an spiritual man meditative trips to mount HiraHis Private Life his marriage to Khadija Khadijas roleThe first Muslim financial supportmoral support political SupportIn Society Was AgainstA Meccans HypocrisyB Arabs philosophy of life against fatalism of Arabs against Bedouins crude materialismC Against the dominant tradition of Meccan society against Femicide against unjust treatment of orphans and widowsConclusion he believed in the followingHis society is in theological crisis monotheism vs polytheismHis society is in economicsocial crisis social justice vs hierarchyHis society is in moral crisis Accountability vs fatalism Honesty vs hypocrisy Before Prophecy Mohammad the man belonged to the Banu Hashim sons of Hashim a lesser clan of the powerful Quraysh tribe which dominated Meccan society Mohammads tribal background not only exposed him to the inequality that existed in his society but also it is one of the factors that made him so sensitive about poverty social and economic justice Around 610 AD Angel Gabriel appeared to Muhammad while he had retired into mount Hira during one of his meditative nights Angel Gabriel gave Muhammad the first verses of Sura 96 of the holy QuranAfter Prophet Three important aspects of Muhammads prophecy while he was in Mecca1 Muhammads method of spreading the message of Islam Quiet PersuasionFocused on close family and relativesthe first Muslims Khadija Ali Ibn AbiTalib the prophets cousin AbuBakr Zayd Ibn Haritha Focused on simple rituals such as prayingFocused on the principles of Tawhid prophecy and Day of JudgmentAfter three years he started to openly invite people to IslamThe Arabs both elites and slaves started to join Muhammad Gave rise to fear among elites 2 Muhammads opponents and their styles of confrontationAMuhammads staunch opponentsMuhammads first enemy his own uncle Abu Lahab and his wifeKabaas trusteesTribal leadersB Styles of confrontation Bribery Persecution Boycott his tribe Assassination planConclusion Muhammad realized that in order to survive he must expand andor go beyond MeccaAfter Hijra Muhammads search for a brighter future for his religionHijra 622 ADHijra Muslim community Umma came into beingUmma defining point of the Islamic sense of identity based on common faith instead of preIslamic tribal sense of identityMuhammads achievements in MedinaAUnified two enemy tribes in MedinaBSmoothly assimilated Meccans Muslims into Medina societythe use of Muslim brotherhood CDrafted the first Islamic ConstitutionDRegulated Muslims relation with Jewish and Christina communitiesEInvented Shura Islamic Participatory decisionmakingFHis challenge with Muslim Hippocrates MunafeghinGHis attempt to conquer MeccaHMuhammads wars with Meccans Badr and UhudIMuhammads peace with Meccans and subsequent conquer of MeccaJMuhammads last speech gave birth to Muslim Umma KMuhammads letter to world leaders Ethiopia Egypt Byzantine and Persian6 Major Teachings of Quran1 Allah and his laws Allah as the central theme Name appears more than 2500 timesmust worship Allah and obey his rules Quran we must know toleranceaccountabilityMonotheism important no association alongside God Jesus not son of God for thy God has no sons However Jesus is the Messiah the anointed oneQuran is against inequality of peopleAllah in transcendenthe is beyond this worldnot related to humansAllah created the universe he is powerfulmerciful Allah knows when the world will end and will judge us according to our deeds 2 The Quranic universeParadise earth hell3 parts of the Quranic universe Life is a test not eternalangels are the link btwn God and man God Good Satan evilHumans are Allahs representatives on earthno concept of original sin in Islam It is here that we see the roots of Islamic ethics God ordains humankind both man and the woman to implement his will3 The Muslim communityCalled the Umma community of believersan individual and community obligationGod declares in the Quran Muslims now constitute the new community umma of believersQuran promotes the unity and equality for all believers of GodMust treat the underprivileged well orphans widows weakMust pursue acts of social justice 4 The Final Judgement
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