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Exam Review-Sociology

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Exam Review Sociology 1272011 125800 PM The Family The Sit of Love Exploitation and OppressionChapter on the FamilyIn both chapters you should be able to explain the functionalist perspective clearly and conciselyYou should also be able to EITHER explain the criticisms raised against the functionalist position OR provide one or two alternative perspectives that challenge the functionalist modelsFunctionalist Theories of the FamilyFunctionalism appears to offer a comprehensive theory that accounts for all the essential features of family as we know it in industrial society The heterosexual pair bonding at the core of any family system stems from biological imperatives not merely the sex drive but the need for longterm nurturing of newborn infants and childrenThe sexrole division of labour within families and the segregation of womens domestic nurturing work from the male instrumental roles in the workforce are rooted both in biological predispositions and in the very distinctive values and behaviour orientations of family life and occupational roles in industrial society The authority of males in the home in terms of the allocation of money also reflects the imperatives of the breadwinner role that men normally holdo Extended families several generations of kin live in the same dwelling usually under the authority of the most senior male or the most senior female in a matriarchal societyo Nuclear families consists of isolated couples with their dependent childreno Monogamy one man and one woman o Polygamy more than one spouse Critiques of Functionalist TheoryIn Eichlers view such theorizing is flawed by four major biases monolithic conservative sexist and microstructuralMonolithic Bias the assertion that a particular phenomenon is uniform throughout allowing no variation The male is not always in the dominant position of being in control Ex Nayar family from India Jamaican poor black family Not every family consists of commonlaw couples that live togetherReconstituted couples where one or both spouses may have children living elsewhere singleparent families and homosexual familiesProcreation many childless couplesSocialization sometimes parents do not live in the same household Most parents are out working so children spend their waking time in childcare centers or with nannies and in the company of televisionSexual relations lifelong chastity in marriage may be the exception rather than the rule It simply cannot be assumed that the biological offspring is from the mothers spouseResidence patterns divorced families live in different houses children may have two family homes Many twocareer families have two or three separate homes Economic cooperation the husband sometimes may not be the breadwinner of the family Emotional relations They vary from not having the close living mutually supportive tiers to shallow and detached relations with little emotional involvementOn rare cases it can be said that there is violence abuse and hatredConservative Bias Generally being disposed to maintain existing social institutions and to oppose efforts to change or reform themRealistically women live longer than man according to statistics yet the play the role in taking care of the husband and her father mother andor the inlaws even though she should not be doing that at her age If women were homemakers their entire lives they have no individual entitlements to anythingSexist Bias Stereotyped and usually derogatory attitudes or discriminatory behaviour toward people of one sex commonly but not necessarily toward people of the opposite sex
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