Lecture 16 – Sexuality and Gender
Despite all evidence that there have been decreases in gender discrimination in
society, there is still substantial evidence that demonstrates there are inequalities.
There is still gender discrimination in society.
a) Wage Discrimination – men and women are rewarded differently for the
same job. ****know diff. between wage discrimination and gap!
b) Wage Gap – How much a woman is paid for working in a similar job to a man.
Occupational Sex Segregation - one way of measuring inequality between genders.
a) Vertical Occup. Sex. Segregation – when men dominate the highest paid
positions in society.
Ie. There is 1 CEO out of the top 100 paid CEO’s is a woman. She’s ranked
85 . Name: Nancy Sutherland. She was born into this position. She was paid
$4.8 million which is half the pay of an average CEO.
Glass Ceiling Effect – Men in our society still dominate a lot of societies best
b) Horizontal Occup. Sex Segregation
Pink Collar Ghettos – women who entered this field of work are often
marginalized. Pink Collar Ghettos do not offer opportunities for
advancement. Job examples: Nurses, Day Care, Servers (female term:
watresses), Administrators (female term: secretary), babysitter, hair dresser,
sex trade worker.
Opposite of Pink Collar: Blue Collar. Collar that’s paid higher: White Collar
(refers to masculine).
Each of the jobs in P.C. G. are seen as natural extensions of women’s work. A
lot of pink collar work have a high level of emotional labour. Because this is a
feminized social skill, they are undervalued and undercompensated.
- The #1 job for men: Retail Sales and Sales Clerks. 2# - truck drivers. 2# - retail
trade managers…. Men on average make 2/3 times more than women.
- The #1 job for women: Retail Sales and Sales Clerks. 2# - sales associates….
We live in a service economy and these are the jobs that are most paid. Vertical Occupational Sex Segregation at Law Firms:
Fiona Kay (sociologist at Queen’s) has done research on people working at law
“Why is it that when you look at partners (highest paid workers) at a law firm are
almost always men?” It’s a product of the glass ceiling.
She has conducted studies and found that within the legal sector in Canada, there’s
still a gender division in labour. The legal proffesion rem