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Sociology Study notes.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gregory Bird

Sociology Study notes; Chapter 4 – Social Interactions Feminist theory shows men have a mochoness about them as authority figures and they look at gender differences in patterns of social interaction. Blocks to social interactions; roles, status, and norms Norms and values govern social life in terms of what is accepted. Ie. Wedding = happy, funeral=sad Emotional labor is controlling emotions brought on at work. Women have more jobs with this as nurturing feature. Conflict theory; social interactions need to have focus on both parties. Struggle for attention with subject of conversation is also applied to listener. Symbolic interaction; people act in ways they see just – ie. Altruistic This has idea of using norms to govern behaviours George Mead; taking role of other person and seeing ourselves as someone else see us. Understanding nonverbal signs to understand how they see us and change behaviour to fit expectation. Learn norms with experience Goffman’s dramaturgical analysis – the world is stage that we play roles in. our presentation to the world and always in public eye when role playing to norms is most intensive. Ie- server, they have waitress, lines and actions to perform once away from table they remain themselves. Verbal/nonverbal Communication Social context – making sense of language and gestures to understand a word Facial, body and gestures – understanding communication through expressions, posture; 6 common expressions made the same in every culture – happy, sad, angry, disgust, fear, surprise 4 zones of interaction; intimate (lover), personal(friends), social (handshake), public (restaurant) Status cues – social position, and stereotyping, creates social barriers and discriminative. Groups; how was is possible for Nazis to murder 6 million jews? - Norms of solidarity demand conformity; approval of accepted behaviours and gain social bond. Ie. Nazis didn’t hate jews they wanted to be accepted themselves. - Authority renders obedience; fear of punishment when disobeying authority. Ie- Stanley mailgrams experiment- willing to hurt someone when authority prompts them - Bureaucracies efficient as authority structure; refined positions to break authority in small tasks. Ie. Nazis w/ leaders. Social networks; “small” world based on everyone having different social groups, connects with a wide range of people and can be similar to network analysis. Urban networks – community vs. society Groups; networks that identify with each other- norms, values, dresss code. Conforming to a group is pressure to connect with behaviours and conformity shows cohesion. Boundaries that exist to remain group intact and keep outsiders from joining. Dominant Groups; further goals, such as Nazis. Social categories – similar people who don’t interact – coffee drinkers Primary/Secondary - Primary; strong social ties(family) - Secondary; impersonal social ties(classroom friends) The Asch experiment; Solomon Asch - Group experiment where subjects answered wrong to remain consistent with rest of the room. Group think as valuable aspect – armies see each others as brothers, can be dangerous with pressures to conform. Bureaucracies – most efficient secondary group - Traditional – we always done it this way and leader to keep in tact - Informal – changing it to meet an ideal reality - Flaws – size = difficult to communicate, protest/rivalries, hierarchy, too much power over riding, poor communication through all fields of authority. - Having small order with multiple communication ties and 1 authority head. – No middle management. Chapter 5 – Deviance and Crime Social norms cause idea of deviant going against them, and every society has different idea of what norms are. Deviance involves breaking a norm – evoking negative reaction – crime is breaking a law Sanctions; actions that indicate diaprroval - Informal; negative reaction (stigmatization-negative view of distinction) - Formal; breaking the law Social definitions define deviance and crime in terms range of severity and what is accepted. Measuring crime; Canadian uniform crime reports – all departments data to characterize statistics. - Flaws; most crime isn’t reported, authorities/public what is a criminal act to report/ignore Self report surveys; find more crimes that go unreported, shows majority of people deal with illeagal activity. Shows victims and what community needs to focus on. Crime rate declined due to; 1) Well-trained bodies fighting crime 2) Community policing initiatives/ crime prevention efforts 3) Enforcement in targeting specific crimes 4) Case management 5) Improvement in forensics Abortion become legal also dropped crime rates due to unwanted children not being had and more supervision with children planned. Criminal profiles – age/gender, races – the way we define and categorize people based on crime rates – discriminatory practice Symbolic approach; learn deviant behaviour through social context of experienced higher order – sees actions as “normal”. Labeling; judgments/responses of deviant behaviour based on views of race – ie. White vs black Functionalist; deals with social dysfunctions that lead to deviant behaviour. Durkheim – crime benefits society of redefining social solidarity and adapt with social change. Criminal subcultures – social groups adopt criminal gangs, feel rejected and make a subculture that works – they rationalize with behaviour to appear as if its accepted. Conflict theory; rich/powerful impose labels and they escape their own criminal behaviours and have more control over justice system. Believes people will act in deviant ways when they can get away with it. Adolescence are more susceptible to deviant behaviour as they lack self control and poorly socialized as they act on impulse. Feminist Theory; gender based influences. Women change face of crimes as they become more involved in law – acts of violence against women. Punishment; ensures behaviours and kept and raise in recent years. Most people alter behaviour when they know they’re being watched – ie. Surveillance camera. Medicalization of deviance; medically definfing behaviours – punishment in form of psychiatric help. - Mental disorders cause deviant crimes are given drugs and seems more apperant in our society. Increase suggests people accept mental health issues over criminals. Prisons; career criminal – multiple imprisonments and adopts culture of prison. - Prisons take away freedome making it more civil then death. - Incarnation use to be a way to teach accepted norms in society to lead better lives when released. However todays criminals aren’t given any lenance. Scares eople into staying away from criminal behaviour. moral panic – belief society is at threat – has benefits 1) Mass media makes $$ with publicizing it 2) Crime prevention industry $$ 3) Criminal justice job $$ 4) Politically used as defense to ensure voter Chapter 6 – Social Stratification Inequality this is seen through unjust measures; 1. Possible to be rich without working for it 2. People can work hard without becoming rich 3. Structure of society causes inequality Social stratification – the way society is organized in divisions – ie. Class, race, age Functionalists idea of stratification; argues some jobs are mor important and people make sacrafices in terms of pay $$, and inequlity is required to motivate these sacrafices. Wealth is what you own, your assets minus liabilities. Ensures sense of well-being in terms of financial problems, power in politics, ensures health in terms of stress, Net worth = assets – debts Social structures shape the idea of inequalitys and the raise of human, social and cultural capital are the reasons behind this. Human Capital – investment in education and training, worth of self Critiques to human capital are; 1. Presumes everyone is rational in adapting to this thinking 2. Assumes we compete in fair labor market 3. Assumes meritocracy – that we all have equal opportunity based on human worth Social Capital –networks/connections an individual possess Cultural capital – high-status culture Bourgeoisie – owners of productions, they do not do physical labor and benefit form profits Poltetariat – working classin position to earn wages and don’t own means of production. Ascription-based stratification; system in which allocation of rank depends on features with which a person is born Achievement-based; system in which the allocation of rank depends on persons accomplishments Chapter 7 – Race and Ethnicity Using a discriminatory way of testing ethnicity isn’t a valid way to measure differences. Testing done the IQ’s of races doesn’t represent the race as a wholes intelligence and rather the social setting a persons in raised and educated on is what impacts the IQ. Race and Sports Idea that black people are superior in sports – this is false beliefs as no testing can prove genetically that such gene exists in black athletes as well; blacks are not commonly in hockey, swimming, soccer, ect. Racial profiling groups of people based on race are what stem for discrimination and prejudice. Racial Mixing Genes cannot determine race base+d on genetic makeup. Internally nothing is different and multi racial couples show this with mixed babies and genes of a sort – race is no longer a variable to distinguish people as most people are of different mixed backgrounds. Biologically these races have no differences. Sociological Definition of Race Race will forever be an invaluable analytical tool people use to identify a person – physical features. Perceptions of race are often socially constructed and distinctions that are made with physical images. Race in terms of sociology is only to use inequalities and discriminatory perceptions that have racial dominance. Describing factors that a race is known for brings about racial stereotypes and negatively reflects an idea of the race. This reinforces racial inequalities and shows the social inequalities that we use with race. Cycle of Racism Chart (pg. 145) Ethnicity, Culture, and Social Structure Race is to biology, as ethnicity is to culture. Race is socially defined physically deceived markers. Ethnic group is people who perceive cultural markers. Ethnic groups bear language, religion, customs, values, ect. however, these cultural differences don’t change behaviours drastically in individuals as social structure undermines any cultural differences. This means society teaches norms of behaviours that people are influenced by, rather than cultural beliefs. Having the equal treatment and knowledge growing up means no ethnic barriers favor one person over another based on race in Canada – equal qualifications apply when equal schooling and knowledge is at hand. Resources and Opportunities What matters in determining economic success of ethnic or racial group is the resources on posses – ie. Education, as well as the opportunities open at the time. John Porter – founder of modern Canadian sociology, called mid-twentieth century Canada a vertical mosaic – ethnic and racial society. Saw it as a flaw to Canadian economy making it low-mobility. This idea however was disregarded when society sprung regardless of ethnic diversity. Ethnic and racial diversity increased making society less discriminatory and equally cultural. With unemployment rate increased, visible minorities were made less economically successful and more likely to fall as new immigrants. An issue immigrants in Canada face is they may be highly educated but the credentials don’t stand in Canadian educational systems. In addition to the resources a person possesses, the structure of opportunity is also crucial in economic advancement. Racial and ethnic inequalities is rooted more in a social then biological aspect. Symbolic Interactionism, Race, and Ethnic Relations Labels and Identity Social context and the nature of a person’s relations with other members of separate racial and ethnic groups shape and reshape a person’s ethnical identity. Changing social context will also change the ethnic identity one has of self-conception. Ex- ethnic identity was born through Canadians terms of “Italians” – people who came from Italy. Symbolic interactionists empathize that ethnic and racial labels and identities are formed as a result of negotiation. Social context in which a group is identified as, example would be blacks as a the proper term, not Negros. A change in social context stems a change in refered, Indians prefer native Americans as a less discriminatory manner and was only recently changed with social conflicts. Imposition Vs. Choice Blending with majority to remain on equal terms and using ethnicity to benefit rather than discriminate – St. Patrick’s day is celebrated regardless of ethnicity and used a symbolic matter. In contrast is the racism against black Canadians who often deal with negative remarks in regard to ethnicity and ideal the inferiority the group has over another. Institutional racism is the bias not noticed by majority groups. The idea of racism doesn’t reflect with status in society, where racism is common, racial identities are compulsory and at the front of a person’s identity. Irish vs. black racism takes different forms. Conflict Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations Colonialism and Internal Colonialism Colonialism is one of the most influential factors constituting race and conflict of inequalities. Colonialism involves people from one country invading another – invaders gain control and destroy/change their culture. This promotes and reinforces ethnic differences in a racial sense. In Canada the victims of colonialism is the aboriginals, Quebec natives and blacks. Canada’s Aboriginals Aboriginals were subject to expulsion – the removal of population on territory claimed by another population in their case, European settlers. Europeans used what is today Newfoundland as a port for fishing, taking over the Beothuk tribes land. They saw these previous settlers as nuisance and eventually began killing them off and population declined from European decent. By the eighteenth century, Beothuk were squeezed into interior of Newfoundland and expulsion from their land was completely seized by Europeans leading to their extinction. This is extreme; however, MOST first nations have similar stories with European settlers taking over fur trade, minerals, oil, and gas – which as a result allowed Canadian economy to grow. Most aboriginals saw Europeans acts as a way to obliterate their heritage. They forced aboriginal children into schooling and prevented from speaking their language, religions and forced to adopt European culture. Canadian government was accused of creating cultural genocide, exterminating entire population defined by race or ethnicity and until the twentieth century schools were teaching aboriginals as evil or irrelevant in Canadian history. Aboriginals were prevented from practicing ways of life and formed into European culture. From this discriminatory aboriginals are still under scrutiny and many face unemployment in today’s societies. The Quebecois In Canada colonialism was not just expulsion but also conquest of land – forcible capture of land and economic/political dominance on inhabitants. When English settlers captured Canadian they imposed their ethnic stratification that remained in place for over 200 years. The British banned language, religion, and laws of the former colony taking away the French heritage. They attempted to gain allies favoring farmers and Catholics to remain loyal to British rule. British origins populated most areas and social separation reinforced economic segregation. French and British continued to have separate lives, with language, live in diff towns, and interact on small th occurrences. During the 20 century Quebec was still in era of undeveloped government – health, education and welfare were on part of the Catholic Church. Quebec’s middle class and blue-collar workers campaigned for government and political system in early 40s. They wanted liberal ways and state control over education. Wanted government to supply social services to province and help with economic development – this became known as the quiet revolution in 1960s. Modernizing of Quebec failed in 4 ways; 1. The potential demographic decline of the Quebecois. By 1980’s Quebec women were having less children with major incline – caused fear of endangered race. 2. The assimilation of immigrants into English culture. English immigrants wanted English schools and the fear of declining birth rate threatened Quebec’s heritage. 3. Persistent ethnic stratification. Quiet revolution made many jobs in government, education, and corporations for Quebecois but higher power remained for English-origin Canadians. 4. The continued use of English as the language of private industry. English remained choice of language because large technological businesses were controlled by English and Americans. These problems steamed changed among Quebecois as they searched for ways to benefit province and keep culture, such as compulsory French-language education in immigrant children, French signs only. Wanted to keep culture intact and remain equal to other groups. Searched for pro independence – and Quebec a separate nation from Canada. Black Canadians Third form of colonial action –slavery, creates barriers. In 1800s 24 million Africans were brought to Canada half didn’t make if from violence, sickness and ship wreck on the way. Once in Canada they were bought and sold until 1833 when British government made slavery illegal. Slavery was abolished in U.S. 30 years after. Slavery in Canada was minimal compared to U.S. as slaves were smuggled into Canada to work on railway. Canada helped in early 1830s after American civil war (1861-65) black settlement was disregarded in Canada and rejected most black immigrants. Social relationships with blacks and whites were anything but equal and blacks remained doing unskilled labour and socially segregated. Canadian immigration policy was liberalized in 1960s – racial, ethnic restrictions were removed. Immigrants were admitted based on economic contribution and close family ties. This made Canada a much more racial and ethnically diverse country. Today, 3 quarters of Canadian immigrants are visible minority groups. Blacks form Canada’s third largest visible minority. From aftermath of slavery, even in today’s society blacks and whites very regularly interact and prejudice, discrimination, disadvantage, and segregation continues to act as barrier. Sociology at the Movies – Crash Deals with racist assumptions, and learning race doesn’t make someone’s situation any different from as human as they are. Uses ethnical and racial realities of the world with neighboring conflicts. Crash uses a measure of hope that races can be equal to one other without the prejudice. Split Labour Markets and Asian Canadians Second theory that focuses on social-structural barriers in split labour market – proposed by Edna Bonacich. She explains why racial identities are reinforced by labour market conditions. Racist attitudes develop when low and high wage workers compete for the same job. Resent began in early years of Asian, Chinese and Japanese immigration in Canada. They were brought to provide cheap labour. Asian immigrants worked in lumbering, railway, and mining. 15 000 Chinese were brought in to work on Canadian railway and paid half the wages of white Canadian workers. Asian immigration was seen as a threat to British values and immigration was declined once railway was finished. This introduced the “head tax” in which was placed on Chinese immigrants. Head Tax was the $$ per immigrants to decline the raise of immigrant families moving into Canada. After great depression many Chinese were deported due to unemployment. Racial criteria for immigration was removed later on in 1960s. Asian and European animosity arose due to Asian population willing to work for lesser wages, sparking conflict with Europeans. European Canadians formed “exclusion leagues” pressuring government to restrict Asian immigrants and staged anti-Asian riots, solidified racial identities and made assimilation impossible. These racist and ethnical boundaries and discriminations have left a legacy of racism in Canada. Some Advantages of Ethnicity Conflict theory emphasize how social forces outside a racial or an ethnic group create inequaly and prevent assimilation into dominant values and institutions in society. Focus on disadvantages of race. High levels of immigration renew racial and ethnic communities by providing similar language, customs, and so on. Canada is third most multicultural country in the world. 3 main factors enhance value of continued ethnic group memberships; 1. Ethnic group membership can have economic advantages – most apparent for immigrants seeking similar customs and relating to one another. Immigrants remain tightly connect dealing with similar situations. Using generations to keep business and connections among countries together. 2. Ethnic group membership can be politically useful – government funds became available to make both English and French languages taught in schools. Multiculturalism was introduced as a way of making all ethnic backgrounds equal. Helped Canada become bilingual and stimulates ethnic culture and identity throughout the country. Thus, ethnicity can be political tool for achieving increased access to resources. 3. Ethnic group membership tends to persist because of the emotional support it provides – most apparent in immigrant communities. Allows sense of comfort in alien environment, performs significant emotional function. People within culture groups feel sense of belonging and pride, offers a sense of security. Immigration in today’s society involves a better connection to homelands that never use to be available. Sustains ethnic culture and keeps a sense of tradition and family. Communication through, phone, internet, email, radio and TV cultural shows, cheaper flight rates. Ethnicity remains vibrant force in Canadian societies. The Future of Race and Ethnicity in Canada Canada’s British roots still remain most dominant with democracy still British model, English dominant language and French as second language. Canada is nonetheless, one of the most diverse and accepting countries. As diversity increase Canada’s racial relations have changed. Todays society is based on segregation, pluralism, and assimilation. Canada is tolerant compared to other countries that bring wars with genocide and inequality from racial tensions. Only in Canada a strong majority of the population has a broad acceptance for immigrants. Upward mobility of immigrants has however changed due to immigrants difficultly in gainging academic recognition from credentials earned abroad. Aboriginals remain at lowest economic and educational standings. Canadian born children of immigrants are not disadvantaged as blacks still seem to be today. Black men have the worst off for what seems to be discriminatory labels. Discrimination is still present in Canada and without changing social standings of today the society will continue to favor only certain racial groups. Chapter 8 – Sexuality and Gender Sex vs. Gender Is it a Boy or a Girl? A case study done on male twins - during circumcision something went horribly wrong and one of the infants penises were burned off. With no hope for remodeling and reclaiming male identity, the parents decided to have a sex change and continue life as a female with genderization. The newly formed girl was treated like a girl and given girl socialization. Picking up on this identity until hormones came into play she wanted to be a he and later tried committing suicide due to this emotional trauma. Told of her sex change she changed into male and married, and adopted children. At age 38 committed suicide from emotional damage. Gender Identity and Gender Role What makes us female or male? The first answer is biological. Our sex is what determines female or male genitals and genetic hormones to stimulate development of reproductive system. Involves having “masculine” and “feminine” feelings, attitudes, and behaviours. This is terms of gender, with gender your feelings, attitudes, and behaviours typically associated with being male and female. Gender identity is identifying with sense of belonging to particular sex. Acting in ways a male or female is expected to act is taking upon gender roles. Social Learning of Gender Gender identity begins at infants at the age of one, and fully aware of by age two and three. Early childhood lessons prove identity in gender with the role models and behaviours that biologically we pick up on. Biology is not “destiny” to determine gender but also the socializing from the beginning of infant hood that recognizes differences. In David’s case the gender reassignment began at 22 months which in this case male attitudes were already directed towards the infant. When people reject gender roles it arises a negative sanction with scrutiny, punish for deviance. Theories of Gender Origins of gender differences have 2 perspectives; - Essentialism; the theory that views gender as nature in ones biological makeup. (functionalists) - Social construction; the theory that views gender as “constructed” by society and culture. (conflict, feminist, and symbolic interactionists theories agree) Essentialism According to sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists gender differences in behaviour are based in biological differences between men and women. Women can have limited amount of children where as men can have millions, it gives women a more protective side to their offspring and need for proper mate. Males compete with each other to gain women access and treat women as property, and women look for money. Functionalism and Essentialism Functionalists back up essentialism theory by saying gender roles help to integrate society. Women are specialized in raising children, and managing the house – men are in paid labour to support the family. This deals with gender role socialization passed through generations. For boys learning “masculinity” is traits such as rationality, self-assuredness, and competiveness. For girls, “femininity” is learning expressive traits, such as nurturance, and sensitive to others. This socialization in seen through family roles and larger society conforms to gender roles. In functionalist view learning essential features of female and male essence integrates society to function better. Critique of Essentialism from Conflict and Feminist Perspectives 1. Essentialists ignore the historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality. - Wide categories constitutes male and female and gender differences aren’t constant, they vary with social conditions. Ie. Woman in police filed are aggressive, deals with role change. 2. Essentialism tends to generalize from the average, ignoring variations within gender groups. - Using a limited sample to conclude theory, women and men are equally assertive in verbal ways but not providing full sample limits what their theory concludes. 3. Little or no direct evidence supports the Essentialists’ major claims. - Sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists have not identified the genes that determine these differences. 4. Essentialists explanations for gender differences ignore the role of power. - Assumes power of behaviour patterns ensures function of society. Seeing men as position of power over females. Conflict theory Friedrich Engels identified root of male inequalities steaming from preliterate societies producing more goods then they needed. Men gained control over economic surplus, imposed rule only men could own property and then using force made their wife’s stay faithful to them. With capitalism male dominance increased as men with wealthier and powerful over women domestic roles. Feminist Theory Feminists doubt that male domination is related to capitalism. They believe inequalities deal with more land property then capitalist societies. They conclude them male dominance is rooted less is capitalism then in patriarchal authority relationships, family structure, and socialization that takes place in cult
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