political 214 test review.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Paula Maurutto

Key concetpts 5/10 questions 10-12 mins for each Political culture • What is liberalism? What appears to be the distinctive about Canadian liberalism • Theroies of Canadian political cculture (fragments, formative events) • Whats the point of studying polticial culture in a political science course? The constitutional framework • Canada combines parliamentary government with feralism • Tension between majoritarian democracy and the federal principle • “ • “similar in principle” • Amending formula • Peaceful evolution- significance o Patriation as an example Federalism • Confederation bargain: why did the existing provinces • Preservation of existing provinces, division of powers, Quebec • Centralism and the BNAact o Controversial “culture wars” issues kept down at provincial level • Division of Powers th o Ottawa got nation building responsibilities, as understood in 19 century context Responsible Government • BNAAct doesn’t include responsible government: why not • Conventions of responsible government( party in powers must have confidence of the House of Commons) o Trudeau-Lewis 1972 o Peterson- rae • Role of the Governor General, the personal prerogative or reserve powers o King-byng o Adrienne Clarkson Maybe tonight • Fusion of executive and legislative branches • Conventions of ministerial responsibility ( collevtive and individual) The composition of cabinet My own review Both Britain and America have big impact on Canada. • Britain because of their empire, and theAtlanticAlliance- NATO o They spread through the war and colonialism • Americans because of the impact of theAmerican Revolution and the War of 1812 which made Canada and US closer in terms of trading partners o American hegemony and military, cultural, financial, and ideologies might strongly influence Canada and their view of themselves o American culture is strong in Canada due to cultural proximity o Canadian culture is a one big mosaic, whileAmericans are seen as a one big melting pot of cultural assimilation and homogenization. o despite these attempts at differing ourselves fromAmericans, there is still the fact that Canada isAmerica’s closest neighbour and the fate of these two states are intimately linked through their common British political culture, institutions, values, and norms o *painting of queen on a moose by Charles pachter which caused controversy can be used o Canada is a product of conservative Britain and liberalAmerica o The queen is the head of the state, her representative is the governor general, who is appointed by the PM who is the head of the government o In U.S. the head of the state and the head of the government is the president o Canada is in fact a monolingual nation because of the ever-weakening French and Quebecois population that is not producing any more children for the next generation, and furthermore, French is not a nationally spoken second language • three ways of understanding why Canadian political culture is so much more different thanAmerica’s is through: o Historical analysis o Institutional studies o Attitudinal surveys • understanding the great cultural divide between Francophone and Anglophone Canada. The two theories are: o Harz-Horowitz Theory of Fragmentation – focuses on the mindsets of the people who originally came to Canada.  The first Harz-Horowitz Theory of Fragmentation states that because of cultural forces that arrived in Canada at the time with the British colonization of the New World, there was a mixture of both liberal and conservative values at the time for the settlers. This was a very feudal based system, which eventually evolved industrialization, and modernization, which are the elements of the more liberal state of Canada • the Harz-Horowitz theories are not perfect as political institutions and politics cannot be tested under a laboratory, the reason why this theory is important and significant is because it can help explain some, if not most of the major cultural cleavages, divides, and histories of the many people of the state called Canada. It also helps to explain the relationship between individuals and institutions, and how both are shaped by the influences of the other o Seymour Martin Lipset’s Formative Event Theory – focuses on what happened to the people who had those mindsets in the New World and how events shape the lives of Quebeckers after the Conquest, which left a collective memory scar that has never fully healed.  second theory proposed by Martin Lipset is that of the Formative Event Theory, which proposed, that not do what happens in your mind matters, but also what happens outside in the real world. The historical factors of the Conquest by the British of Quebec essentially congealed Quebec into a very conservative mentality, and the Conquest left a collective scar on their memory, which in turn has not been fully healed. • Canadian political culture because history and historical processes explains a lot about why Canadian political culture is so much more conservative, open-minded, tolerant, and benevolent in comparison to American politics where most of it is very restricted, limited, and constrained by the values of extreme liberalism and libertarianism • American Revolution as it strengthened the conservative element in the country itself, and one thing that is distinctly unique about Canadian politics is that we have the National Democratic Party. We have socialism. InAmerica, socialism is unacceptable and even considered treasonous. Furthermore, the idea of secession is not tolerated in America as well. NDP and socialism play a big role in our politics as they are now the official opposition on Parliament Hill, are very pacific, and had influenced the 2008 elections, and nearly destroyed Harper, as well as th
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