SOC211 Article Summaries for Midterm
Murder in Judaism
Provides a theological account of murder, that is, its significance within the broader
context of God’s plan for creation. It argues that God’s prohibition of murder, understood
as abuse of the powerless, is due to Gods broader concern with the maintenance of
cosmic justice (cosmic harmony), which is required for the preservation of creation.
Murder detracts from God’s cosmic justice in that it damages an aspect of justice that is
related to human beings: social justice. Social justice is achieved through protection of
the weak. In short, murder as the ultimate act of oppression of the weak, constitutes social
injustice and results in the disruption of God’s cosmic harmony.
Impacts of “Three Strikes and You’re Out” on Crime Trends in California and
Throughout the United States
Between the years 1993 and 1997 three strikes and you’re out sentencing laws were
passed in 24 American states and the federal justice system. Three strikes mandate long
sentences for certain habitual offenders, usually 25 years to life in prison for third time
violent offenders. Three strikes statues vary widely in their details such as the number of
offenses that trigger the laws application, the prior offenses that qualify as: strikes” and
the penalties associated with the second and third strikes
The broadest statue was enacted by the state of California in 1994. From the time it was
enacted through October 2005, more than 87,000 individuals had been sentenced under
the second and third strike provision of California’s three strike law, including more than
7,500 offenders who received a sentence of 25 years to life, in prison for a third strike.
Whereas no other state has incarcerated more than 400 offenders under its three strikes
law, more than 100,00 conviction have resulted form California’s policy. Yet the approach
taken in California has not been dramatically more effective at controlling crime than
other states’ efforts.
The toughest sentencing policy is shown to not necessarily be the most effective.
A spatial Analysis of Criminal Effort: Auto Theft in Newmark, New Jersey
The present study seeks to fill this gap in the research literature by addressing the role of
effort in an offenders decisionmaking process. Specifically, this article uses recent
advancement in mapping technology to explore the hypothesis those offenders will travel
to the closest opportunity to commit auto theft.
Criminal effort is not merely a way to characterize the criminal behavior or act (i.e. the
act of stabbing someone to death requires more exertion than the act of stealing office
supplies) but that it is a salient part of the criminal decision process.
Sterilizing the “Feeble Minded” Eugenics in Alberta, Canada
Eugenics: the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to
increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics
Alberta government passes eugenics legislation that enabled the involuntary sterilization