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University of Toronto Mississauga
Alison Weir

Canadian Families: page 86-121 Chapter 4: Immigrant and Racialized Families Introduction: - Canadian families esp in the large urban centres of Toronto are very multicultural. - At the time of colonization, 500 000 Aboriginals inhabited the Western hemisphere and lived in Canada. - Colonialism: shaped Canadian families and immigrants that have come to this country. - racialization: process by which racial meanings are attached to particular issues. Colonialism: - defined as the economic & political domination of a region and its people for a foreign power. - Europeans came to Asia, africa & americas - 15-19th century. - met with different aboriginal groups. - through trade and community relationships. They were nomadic, semi- nomadic with collective work efforts - did fishing, hunting, gathering. etc. - harsh punishment wasn't really used on children. - Huron family 17th century based on - matriliny- female kin - headed by women - this created egalitarian relations. - sexual intercourse was considered normal. - Inuits - kin relations were flexible, marriages monogamous, rigid division of labor by gender- men hunting & fishing, women - domestic, childcare - Political economy perspective: links between economy & family forms. where there is no private property - society seems to be less egalitarian and vice versa. Because private property is usually controlled by men. Social feminists: capitalists & men benefit from gender division. - men have more free time because women do all housework when they come home - Double day: paid and unpaid work for women. Postcolonial Family Lives: - Aboriginal families started to disappear through diseases and warfare etc. - Internal colonialism: continuing subjugation of the Aboriginal peoples and their being defined as racially inferior. - part of 'othering' - pop that is depicted as inferior in biology and in culture. - homogenization - aboriginal pop. decimated and pop. was reduced., disruption of kin ships more gender inequalities, rigid economy. - Idential school system - imposed on First Nations and the Inuit - children were taken away from their families to be schooled by non Aboriginals. - poor conditions, destroyed families, culture, disease, malnourishment etc. - the colonial legacy is shown in the prevalence of family violence, - disenfranchisement: Aboriginals who became targets for government intervention. - resiliency - refers to families that thrive even if they have been exposed to severe adversity, thus Aboriginals hope to focus on rebuilding their families through 'community healing.' Black Families & the Colonial Legacy: - slave trade was a very important part of colonialism, Canada was part of - Atlantic slave trade - 60 slave ships, for British slave trade. - mostly provided domestic service to white colonizers, were kept in plantations, dehumanizing conditions, separated from families, sexual exploitations etc. - Black Loyalists: those who escaped to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Ontario from Slavery in the United States. (the underground railroad). - Racialization socialization - which is a socialization process focused on developing children's and youths pride in themselves & their group. (depends on: 1: ethnic awareness in early childhood, 2: ambivalence in adolescence, 3: individuals seek their origins 4: racial incorporation in adulthood. ) Immigrant Families: - temporary foreign worker- Canada admits people under this. - if you are an immigrant that would like to come to Canada. - Permanent resides: arrive under 3 categories: 1: economic class, family class & protected persons. - Visible minority: implies those that are classified as the 'other' and that there is homogeneity of experiences among them. Economic Conditions: - lots of immigrants hold university degrees, however, they face: poverty, loss of occupational status, their race may be taken into account - those who are racialized have higher rates of poverty. Gender Relations: - immigrant men are more likely to work for pay, rather than immigrant women - unemployment is highest among African, south Asia and west central Asian women. - antiracist feminism - regards the realization that racialized women may see the family as a refuge from the oppression they face in the outside world. Intergenerational Relations: - many immigrant parents feel their parenting is challenged - poverty, parental struggles to make a living, pressure on their children in education and career planning - generation gap - immigrant youth often feel torn between their desire to fit in with their peers and their desire to meet their parents expectations - immigrant parents - whose reference point is the world they left behind and their children who are subjected to acculturation to Canadian norms and values. - language differences can disrupt : intergenerational communication, childrens role as c
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