Canadian Families: page 86-121
Chapter 4: Immigrant and Racialized Families
- Canadian families esp in the large urban centres of Toronto are very multicultural.
- At the time of colonization, 500 000 Aboriginals inhabited the Western hemisphere and
lived in Canada.
- Colonialism: shaped Canadian families and immigrants that have come to this country.
- racialization: process by which racial meanings are attached to particular issues.
- defined as the economic & political domination of a region and its people for a foreign
- Europeans came to Asia, africa & americas - 15-19th century.
- met with different aboriginal groups. - through trade and community relationships. They
were nomadic, semi- nomadic with collective work efforts - did fishing, hunting,
- harsh punishment wasn't really used on children.
- Huron family 17th century based on - matriliny- female kin - headed by women - this
created egalitarian relations.
- sexual intercourse was considered normal.
- Inuits - kin relations were flexible, marriages monogamous, rigid division of labor by
gender- men hunting & fishing, women - domestic, childcare
- Political economy perspective: links between economy & family forms. where there is
no private property - society seems to be less egalitarian and vice versa. Because private
property is usually controlled by men.
Social feminists: capitalists & men benefit from gender division. - men have more free
time because women do all housework when they come home - Double day: paid and
unpaid work for women.
Postcolonial Family Lives:
- Aboriginal families started to disappear through diseases and warfare etc.
- Internal colonialism: continuing subjugation of the Aboriginal peoples and their being
defined as racially inferior. - part of 'othering' - pop that is depicted as inferior in biology
and in culture.
- homogenization - aboriginal pop. decimated and pop. was reduced., disruption of kin
ships more gender inequalities, rigid economy.
- Idential school system - imposed on First Nations and the Inuit - children were taken
away from their families to be schooled by non Aboriginals. - poor conditions, destroyed
families, culture, disease, malnourishment etc.
- the colonial legacy is shown in the prevalence of family violence, - disenfranchisement:
Aboriginals who became targets for government intervention.
- resiliency - refers to families that thrive even if they have been exposed to severe
adversity, thus Aboriginals hope to focus on rebuilding their families through 'community
healing.' Black Families & the Colonial Legacy:
- slave trade was a very important part of colonialism, Canada was part of - Atlantic slave
trade - 60 slave ships, for British slave trade. - mostly provided domestic service to white
colonizers, were kept in plantations, dehumanizing conditions, separated from families,
sexual exploitations etc.
- Black Loyalists: those who escaped to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Ontario from
Slavery in the United States. (the underground railroad).
- Racialization socialization - which is a socialization process focused on developing
children's and youths pride in themselves & their group. (depends on: 1: ethnic awareness
in early childhood, 2: ambivalence in adolescence, 3: individuals seek their origins 4:
racial incorporation in adulthood. )
- temporary foreign worker- Canada admits people under this. - if you are an immigrant
that would like to come to Canada. - Permanent resides: arrive under 3 categories: 1:
economic class, family class & protected persons.
- Visible minority: implies those that are classified as the 'other' and that there is
homogeneity of experiences among them.
- lots of immigrants hold university degrees, however, they face: poverty, loss of
occupational status, their race may be taken into account - those who are racialized have
higher rates of poverty.
- immigrant men are more likely to work for pay, rather than immigrant women -
unemployment is highest among African, south Asia and west central Asian women.
- antiracist feminism - regards the realization that racialized women may see the family as
a refuge from the oppression they face in the outside world.
- many immigrant parents feel their parenting is challenged - poverty, parental struggles
to make a living, pressure on their children in education and career planning
- generation gap - immigrant youth often feel torn between their desire to fit in with their
peers and their desire to meet their parents expectations - immigrant parents - whose
reference point is the world they left behind and their children who are subjected to
acculturation to Canadian norms and values.
- language differences can disrupt : intergenerational communication, childrens role as