Valuefree means free of everyone’s value except those of science, and objective
meaning following established rules or procedures that some people created, without
considering whom these people represent and how they created the rules.
Metaanalysis: quantitative overview of existing evidence on a particular topic
Conceptualization: The process of developing clear, rigorous, systematic conceptual
definitions for abstract ideas/ concepts.
Conceptual Definition: A careful, systematic definition of a construct that is explicitly
written to clarify one’s thinking. It is often linked to other concepts or theoretical
Operationalization: The process of moving from the conceptual definition of a
construct to a set of specific activities or measures that allows a researcher to observe it
empirically (i.e. its operational definition)
Operational definition: The definition of a variable in terms of the specific activities to
measure or indicate it with empirical evidence.
Social research: a process in which a researcher combines a set of principles, outlooks,
and ideas with a collection of specific practices, techniques, and strategies to produce
Overgeneralization: an error that people often make when using personal experience as
an alternative to science for acquiring knowledge. It occurs when some evidence supports
a belief, but a person falsely assumes that it applies to many other situations too
Selective observation: the tendency to take notice of certain people or events based on
past experience of attitudes.
Premature closure: an error that is often made when using personal experience as an
alternative to science for acquiring knowledge. It occurs when a person feels he or she
has the answers and does not need to listen, seek information, or raise questions any
Data: are the empirical evidence or information that one gathers carefully according to
rules and procedures
Quantitative data: information in the form of numbers
Qualitative data: information in the form of words, pictures, sounds, images, objects
Empirical evidence: the observations that people experience through the senses – touch,
sight, hearing, small, and taste
Scientific community: a collection of peo