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Zaheer Baber

Value­free means free of everyone’s value except those of science, and objective  meaning following established rules or procedures that some people created, without  considering whom these people represent and how they created the rules.  Meta­analysis: quantitative overview of existing evidence on a particular topic Conceptualization: The process of developing clear, rigorous, systematic conceptual  definitions for abstract ideas/ concepts. Conceptual Definition: A careful, systematic definition of a construct that is explicitly  written to clarify one’s thinking. It is often linked to other concepts or theoretical  statements.  Operationalization: The process of moving from the conceptual definition of a  construct to a set of specific activities or measures that allows a researcher to observe it  empirically (i.e. its operational definition) Operational definition: The definition of a variable in terms of the specific activities to  measure or indicate it with empirical evidence.  Social research: a process in which a researcher combines a set of principles, outlooks, and ideas with a collection of specific practices, techniques, and strategies to produce knowledge Overgeneralization: an error that people often make when using personal experience as an alternative to science for acquiring knowledge. It occurs when some evidence supports a belief, but a person falsely assumes that it applies to many other situations too Selective observation: the tendency to take notice of certain people or events based on past experience of attitudes. Premature closure: an error that is often made when using personal experience as an alternative to science for acquiring knowledge. It occurs when a person feels he or she has the answers and does not need to listen, seek information, or raise questions any longer Data: are the empirical evidence or information that one gathers carefully according to rules and procedures Quantitative data: information in the form of numbers Qualitative data: information in the form of words, pictures, sounds, images, objects Empirical evidence: the observations that people experience through the senses – touch, sight, hearing, small, and taste Scientific community: a collection of peo
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