SOC227H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Richard Florida, Ower, North American Free Trade Agreement

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Published on 14 Oct 2015
School
UTM
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC227H5
Professor
Test 1 Review
Chapter 1
Work: is the activity that provides a socially valued product or service
Farming has been replaced by factory work, and then again by white-collar, retail, and
knowledge based jobs
Although people migrate for work, it is increasingly mobile
3:4 are in the service sector; 1:4 part-time job; 1:6 are self-employed
Industrialization: the technical aspects of the accumulation and processing of a societies
resources
oIn an industrial society, sources of energy are used to fuel a production system
that uses technology to process raw materials
Capitalism: describes key aspects of the economic and social organization of the
productive enterprise
oIn a capitalism system, a small number of individuals control the means of
production, while the majority works for a wage
Feudalism gave way to capitalism
Origins of Industrial Capitalism
Emergence of capitalism in Europe consisted of 2 basic periods: Mercantile or
commercial capitalism
In the mercantile period, merchants and royalty in Spain, England, etc., gained huge
fortunes by trading internationally in a variety of goods.
Commercial capitalism emerged out of the feudal society (industrial revolution had not
yet began)
oIn this time, work typically involved the peasants farming small plots of land they
did not own. In which, they paid landowners rent in produce
oThus this time was predominantly a pre-market economy in which the producer
was also the consumer.
oIt was also a pre-capitalist economy because wage labour was rare
Early Capitalism
The production of goods by craftsman lead to larger workshops that made metal, cloth,
glass, and other finished goods
The industrial mill was a technological breakthrough because it imposed social
implications, consolidating many workers under 1 roof thus, making managers extremely
important
oMills imposed horrific working conditions in the early times
Episodes of destroying machines occurred between 1811-1816 called luddites. First
created by Ned Ludd
The emergence of industrial capitalism changed the gender based division of labour
The textile industries (machines with unskilled operators), brought many woman into the
pay labour force
oAs manufacturing developed and expanded, it became the prevalence of men
The Great Transformation
In a matter of decades, factory production dominated capitalist societies
Urban landscape changed to accommodate the new immigration of people into cities
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Canada’s Industrialization
Work in Pre-Industrial Canada
oShortages of land for small farmers, potato famine dreadful working conditions
fuelled immigration to the New World.
oWhen they landed in Canada, they found shortages in factory jobs and available
land
oAs a result, most immigrated to the US where jobs and land were more plentiful
The Industrial Era
oThe first factories prior to confederation in 1867 were set up in Nova Scotia
oAfter 1867, manufacturing became centralized in Ontario and Quebec, therefore,
the Maritimes became deindustrialized
Decline of Craftwork
oCraft workers declined because new technology allowed the division of work into
simple tasks performed by less skilled and lower paid employees
Theoretical Perspectives
Karl Marx
oHe called the overall system of economic activity within a society a mode of
production, and he identified as major components as the means of production
(technology, capital investment, and raw materials) and social relations of
production (the relationships between the major social groups or classes involved
in production)
oMarx identified two major groups in capitalism: the bourgeoisie and proletariat.
Marx also identified a third class; the petit-bourgeoisie-comprising of independent
producers and small business owners, which would eventually disappear because
larger businesses would buy them out
Adam Smith (Competition, not Conflict)
oCompetition among individuals and enterprises lead to growth and the creation of
wealth
oDivision of labour is the key to capitalisms success
Emile Durkheim (interdependence)
oDurkheim saw the division of labor as a source of social cohesion that reduced
this potential for conflict
oHis reason that individuals and groups engaged in different tasks in a complex
division of labor would recognize your mutual interdependence
oWithout cooperation between the two groups, the economy would grind to a haul
Max Weber (Bureaucratic Organization)
oWhat defined Webers “ideal type” bureaucracy was a precise division of labor
within a hierarchy of authority. Each job had it’s own duties and responsibilities,
and each was part of the chain of command in which orders would be passed
down and rewards and punishments used to ensure that the orders are followed
Lecture
Social Culture: a group of individuals with some awareness that they are members of the
group
oEx. Families, work group at a firm
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