SOC231H5 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Karl Marx, Capitalism, French Revolution

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12 Oct 2018
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SOC231H5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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SOC 231: Lecture #1
- to be a human being: connection with social structures
Social structure:
- involuntary: we are born into pre-existing social relationships
- lives are structured by diff types of social relationships/expectations/strains
- language: evolved + social = individual select their own way of speaking (exercise agency
+ intentional + allow/forbid certain way of words)
Individual Agency:
- actions
- we act diff towards diff social structure
- within the same social structure: end up diff pathways
- constant back n forth between structure + agency
- itetioality + idiidual taste
- acting on certain choices
- constant social change we find in society is connected by structure + agency
- w/o structure, cannot have agencies
o human individuals act certain ways transform social structures
o sometimes change is dramatic OR unnoticeable
Ideology:
- systems of thinking (ideas) within society
- eg) French revolution: social impact = transform within a short space of time (collective
agency)
- eg) Harvey/Irma Hurricane: not only physical but social impact (*not ideology)
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The Enlightenment
- individuals + society (interactive relationship)
- 18th century: change ideology + ideas abt the world
o happens because of changes in social structures + support revolutions
- to shed light of reason on traditional social structures
- just uz it is stale, does’t ea it is just
- encourage critically examining traditions = reconstruct society with the reasons
- use scientific REASON to understand the functioning of society
- they were not against religion; but against the power of those religious authorities
- existing social conditions =
- I“ + OUGHT oetio
o just bcuz the situation IS here at time; BUT itself does ot ea it is oderful
o use power relations = WHAT IS OUGHT TO BE
o *if it is problematic; it is ought to be changed*
- enlightenment thinkers always look for better solutions
The Social Contract
- Jean Jacque Rousseau
o Idea that society is not simply happened accidentally
o Passible to lead fashion society in a way that however impossible it might appear
o Tempering society in a way to meet the needs of most members in the society
- Thomas Hobbes
o Society in a natural state is a war of each against all
o Argues origin of society: human are living by their desires/liberty
o Before having society (natural state): ppl soon realizes unless have sth on the
top/state, ppl’s lies are faed ith haos
o Account for power relations to enforce it
- THE “TATE: Hobbes: to enforce rules/laws in a manner that allow individuals not to
worry abt the next attackers + get on with lives
- ROUSSEAU: state of nature: humans are not quite humans + isolated + indifferent to
each other = to pick up certain cultures/languages
o There is no common language + culture
o Acquiring power + prestige = social concept
o What happens when social structure starts to change because of pop growth
Division of labour: to do diff things = ppl begin acquire poverty = leads to
social inequality
Based on social factors
o Private property: before: lands belonged to the state
o Argues the struggle Hobbes were arguing abt:
War occurs after the emergence of society
o ROUSSEAU: is in the enlightenment phase
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Document Summary

Soc 231: lecture #1 to be a human being: connection with social structures. Social structure: involuntary: we are born into pre-existing social relationships lives are structured by diff types of social relationships/expectations/strains language: evolved + social = individual select their own way of speaking (exercise agency. + intentional + allow/forbid certain way of words) We act diff towards diff social structure. Within the same social structure: end up diff pathways. Eg) french revolution: social impact = transform within a short space of time (collective agency) Eg) harvey/irma hurricane: not only physical but social impact (*not ideology) Encourage critically examining traditions = reconstruct society with the reasons. Use scientific reason to understand the functioning of society. Enlightenment thinkers always look for better solutions. Idea that society is not simply happened accidentally: passible to lead fashion society in a way that however impossible it might appear, tempering society in a way to meet the needs of most members in the society.

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