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soc231 test concepts

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Zaheer Baber

SOC231 TEST CONCEPTS1The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment period refers to the intellectual movement that started during the English Revolution and carried on through the French thRevolution This was during the 18 century and it was viewed as an intellectual and social movement to shed light of reason on society Perhaps the most important thing which arose during the Enlightenment was an important shift from religion to science Newton created the empirical method which had underlying assumptions and used reason with observation as the basis of acquiring truth Newtons scientific method was originally utilized in the realms of physics and math but was soon adopted into other realms such as the social sciences This scientific method was for the first time being applied to society in order to understand it All aspects of society where subjected to this form of scientific analysis including religion It was believed that by understanding the forces of a society one could determinetheir direction and control their consequences In other words by studyingsociety one could learn not only about the society today but see the future possibilities for the society For the first time humans were now being seen as perfectible entities2Rousseau and Hobbes on the Origins of SocietyRousseau and Hobbes were both prominent figures during the enlightenment They were both interested in determining the Origins of Society Rousseau was born in Paris and was a figurette for the enlightenment school He was the first to coin the term Society and his argument was premised on his concept of the state of nature and the social contract Rousseau believed there were two conditions the natural and the social and in order to understand the origins of society one must understand how humans existed in the state of nature He knew that today it was impossible to study humans who live beyond the social so instead looked at animals to understand the natural For Rousseau man in nature has neither language norknowledge and harmony is maintained through satisfying all of ones needs He believed that only through society could one depart from the requirements of natural laws War could only exist after societys creation because you need society for people to see hierarchy Thus the social contract is created in order to try and prevent eternal conflict Hobbes viewed the state of nature as a state of all out war He argued that in all men lies a natural desire for power and if that desire can only be fulfilled by one person than others become their enemies The social contract for Hobbes involves men agreeing to give up their natural liberty and subordinate themselves to a sovereign authority who guarantees them security and protection from force and fraud This sovereign authority he often referred to as the Leviathan Thus where Rousseau and Hobbes disagree is in their conceptions of the natural state Hobbes sees the natural state as a war of each against all while Rousseau believes war is a byproduct of the creation of society3Mary Wollstonecraft on Rousseau and Gender
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