Exam Study Guide

23 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Erik Schneiderhan

Lecture 2 – Readings Modernity’s ClassicalAge: 1848-1919 (23-30) • a writing is classical b/c it still serves as a useful ref or meaning model for stories people tell of their own lives • a period of historical time is considered classical b/c people still refer back to it to say things about what’s going on today • Freud’s Oedipus is still a classic today b/c people still find in it two basic truths about life: o They have very strong & mixed feelings about the people around them  Therefore, they tend to distort what they say & think b/c what they actually feel is too upsetting • Modernity is defined as that culture in which people are promised a better life – one day o Until then, they’re expected to lead contradictory lives in which the benefits of modernity equal the losses • First condition of being read is being published o Must interest readers • The exclusion of many ‘good’writings shows modernity’s obsession w/ denying its dark side The Settlement as Factor in the Labour Movement (JaneAddams) (70-72) • Propinquity: the state of being close to someone or something; proximity o Close kinship • Asettlement accepts the ethics of its contemporaries that the sharing of the life of the poor is essential to the understanding & bettering of that life • Lack of org in a trade tends to the industrial helplessness of the workers in that trade • In industrial affairs, isolation is a social crime b/c it tends to extermination o Starving, suffering, & moral disintegration • Labour Movement: a concerted effort among the workers in all trades to obtain a more equitable distribution of the product, & to secure a more orderly existence for the labourers • Started Hull House in 1891 • Everything forAddams emerged out of relations • Believed that you have to live near or in relation to who you want to help • She loves the idea of the power to combine things together (settlements?) • Upset about subdivision of labour & low wage • Movement from craft & trades to mechanisms Civilization and the Individual (Sigmund Freud) (149-151) • Comm also evolves a super-ego, under whose influence cultural development proceeds • Ind superego expects too much of us, and Freud thinks it needs to lower its expectations o Same for cultural superego o Needs of superego surface as guilt from not being able to meet its impossible demands • Says it’s impossible to love thy neighbour as thyself • doesn’t think that civilization is the most precious thing we possess or could acquire or that its path will lead to heights of unimagined perfection Lecture 2 – Lecture Notes • Propinquity: feeling of closeness; proximity; closeness of kin • Principles of Pertinence: ex. Why we always sit in the same seat every class • Context o Changes since the 1900s  WWI, WWII, etc • Themes o The Individual and Society  More focus on how the individual fits in • How society helps the individual o Social Constructions of Knowledge  Most of the opinions we have of ourselves, we make up • Ex. Professor-student relationship  Intersubjectivity • The ways in which we share our understandings of the world o Inequality, Power, & Difference  Assimilation & integration o Empirical Research & Data  Gov’ts are collecting more data  Normative & Empirical • Actual facts vs. what people think/say • Social Theory as Vocation (Levine) o Social theory is grounded in the social world o Custodial work o Heuristic (revealing/showing)  Internal/external  Question the person that the social world is telling you you’re supposed to be o social theory is how we think people should perform work, general, abstract and critical engagements, grounded in the social world o Main question: what does Levine say about the vocational aspect of Social Theory?  He says theories can be considered a profession unto itself. o Lecture 3 – Readings Split Lives in the Modern World (161-189) • The Self and Its Selves (William James) • Aman’s self is the sum total of all that he CAN call his, not only his body & psychic powers, but his clothes, house, wife & kids, etc • The self divides into 3 parts: o Its constituents o The feelings & emotions they around self-feelings o The actions which they prompt  self-seeking & self-preservation 1. Constituents of the self may be divided into: o The material self  Innermost part of the material self is the body • Clothes come next • Then immediate family • Then home • The properties we collect become part of our empirical selves to a certain degree o Ex. Money, work we do, etc o The social self  Aman’s social self is the recog he gets from friends • People long to be noticed • Aman has as many social selves as there are distinct groups of persons about whose opinions he cares o The spiritual self  Aman’s inner or subjective being, his psychic faculties or dispositions  Most enduring & intimate part of self  ‘acts of attending, assenting, negotiating, making an effort’are felt as movements of something in the head  Our entire spiritual activity is really a feeling of bodily activities whose exactly nature is mostly overlooked o The Pure Ego  The transitional feature from the phenomenal self & pure personal identity o The Sense of Personal Identity  The thoughts which we actually know to exist don’t fly about loose, but seem each to belong to some one think & not to another  We are able to distinguish b/w thoughts that are our own and ones that are foreign  Personal identity is the sense of a sameness perceived by & predicated of things thought about • Doesn’t exist as a fact, but as a feeling  We think and do all the things in life together, in one bi processual  ‘me’is not just one unit Double Consciousness & the Veil (Du Bois) • Double consciousness o ‘second sight’  Aworld which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world  ‘sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others’ o Two souls, two thoughts o The ‘Negro problem’is merely a test of the underlying principles of the US • Developed realization of veil when girl rejected his calling card • ‘two selves’like James said • There are 2 ideals, 2 of everything since he has two identities. He is split down the middle. The Yellow Wallpaper (Gilman) • Her fictional retelling of her illness • Writes about living in a summer home w/ her husband, a physician, while she is mentally ill o John doesn’t think she’s ill at all • The room she’s trapped in is a metaphor for women being trapped by men & being unable to progress in society o Women are tied to family&home Women & Economics (Gilman) • Writes about how women fulfil the duties of ‘motherhood’& work all day & night, much longer than men, and are still not allowed to have jobs • Feels that the work women do is not valued • “the economic status of the human race in any nation, at any time, is governed mainly by the activities of the male,; the female obtains her share…only through him.” The Coloured Woman’s Office (Cooper) • Courtesy increasing as we move eastward around the world, coincidentally with a decrease in the sense of self (181) • Is it up to women to teach this ‘mannerless continent’some manners and courtesy? • Believes thatAfrican-American women can solve the problems of race & gender in USA o Intersectionality  Faced by both the issue of gender and of race The Stranger (Simmel) • The stranger – the wanderer who comes today and stays tomorrow • The ‘trader’is the best suited job for the ‘stranger’ • Despite being inorganically appended to it, the stranger is still an organic member of the group • The Jews were ‘strangers’in Europe • Stranger can see the group, but can also step back & view the group • Related to Du Bois’idea of Double-Consciousness The Looking-Glass Self (Cooley) • We see ourselves (our thoughts, appearance, manners, aims, deeds, character, friends, etc.) reflected in the looking-glass and are pleased or otherwise w/ them according to whether they answer to what we want them to be or not • Areflection of how people view us • There is no ‘I’w/o other people • "I am not what I think I am and I am not what you think I am; I am what I think that you think I am." o This can be linked to the theme discussed in class: “social and cultural construction of knowledge” it is the relationship between individual and society. Ways in which people make sense of their “inter-subjectivity”. Example: Society gives importance to universities and education. There is more pressure to attain a degree and graduate to prosper in society. The relationship between a professor and a student, we give that importance and respect to our professors so we listen to them, therefore our professors teach us. We identify them as professors and vice versa. Social Theories & World Conflict (191-201) • How the system affects individuals in the society and why they turn to culturally logical goes, how the gap exists b/w people and the system • Modernity preached that ‘progress was truth’ • All people were believing in a better world; they believed that the future held something great; even if they had no reason to believe so • Why do people obey authority? o Max Weber: human beings have an inner need for meaning. They will obey if the authority makes sense of their lives. In other words, people want value in return for obedience. They are, in this sense, ethical.  Thus, modern culture arose when an increasing number of people accepted the idea that meaning lay in the future, not the past. • World history is like a theatrical display th • In the 19 century, the world expected despair and war and pain, so it was not as shocking • In the 20 century, the world was led to believe in better days, in the future, but they saw Hitler, Stalin, the Great Depression, and the two World Wars, which made them seem a lot worse • One of the dominant issues in social theory b/w the wars was how to rethink the relation of the individual to society • Classic social theorists shared the doctrine that the individual can do what needs to be done b/c society inclines toward progress • 19 century – knowledge would set men free • 20 century – knowledge was implicated in evil • Talcott Parsons o Saw the individual as a unit of social analysis  Lodged in a system in which individual action was constrained not just by social conditions but also by the goals of the system itself and by the complex interrelation of its structured parts  Social actors are bearers of unconsciously introjected motivational forces (taken from Freud)  Introjection: the process where the subject replicates in itself behaviours, attributes or other fragments of the surrounding world, especially of other subjects  Action of the individual was seen as an action of a system, not the autonomous self • Robert Merton o The individual is not just in a structured system of action but that his/her actions may be forced by the demands of the system (strain theory) • George Herbert Mead o The social self was more definitely a social, as opposed to a mental, thing  The self is essentially a social structure, and it arises in social experience  Multiple personalities • All boiled down to one question: what is the fate of the individual in the modern world? Action, Knowledge, Self • The Psychology of Modern Society (203-206) Keynes o The principle of accumulation based on inequality was a vital part of the postwar order of Society and of progress as we then understood it o The rich accumulated wealth and didn’t consume it b/c they weren’t used to spending so inconspicuously and then poor never got any... unequal distribution of wealth o ‘double-bluff’  The cake metaphor • The New Liberalism o The Era of Scarcity (up to the 15 or 16 century) th th o The Era of Abundance (17 and 18 century) o Period of Stabilisation (where we are now – 1925) • Psychoanalysis and Sociology (222-224) Erich Fromm o There aren’t two minds w/I a person’s head, but only one, in which the same mechanisms and laws apply whether a person performs as an individual or people appear as a society, class, comm, etc o He believes that ‘society does nothing, it is the human being that fights all the battles and owns everything’ • The Self, the I, and the Me (224-229) Mead o The self develops solely through social experience. Mead rejected Freud’s notion that personality is determined partly by biological drives. o Social experience consists of the exchange of symbols. Mead emphasized the particularly human use of language and other symbols to convey meaning. o Knowing others’intentions requires imagining the situation from their perspectives. Mead believed that social experience depends on our seeing ourselves as others do, or, as he coined it, “taking the role of the other.” o Understanding the role of the other results in self-awareness. Mead posited that there is an active “I” self and an objective “me” self. The “I” self is active and initiates action. The “me” self continues, interrupts, or changes action depending on how others respond o The multiplicity of self o Self comes out of social experience o `the I and the Me`  Double dialogue o Pragmatism: an approach that assesses the truth of meaning of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application o The Me is kind of like the superego o The I is the active part of the self • Social Structure andAnomie (229-242) Merton IMPORTANT o When people are prevented from achieving culturally approved goals through institutional means, they experience strain or frustration that can lead to deviance. o He said that they also experience anomie, or feelings of being disconnected from society, which can occur when people do not have access to the institutionalized means to achieve their goals. o ‘standing on the shoulders of giants’ o Culture & structure o Patterns of Cultural Goals and Institutional Norms o Types of IndividualAdaptation  Conformity – accept goals and norms  Innovation – accept goals, reject norms  Ritualism – reject goals, accept norms  Retreatism – reject goals, reject norms  Rebellion – substitute new goals and norms o What are the consequences for the behaviours of people situated in a social structure of a culture in which the emphasis on dominant success goals has become increasingly separated from an emphasis on institutionalized procedure for seeking these goals? • Causes of social deviance erupting from the connection between cultural goals (wealth and power) and In
More Less

Related notes for SOC232H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.