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Exam long answer question LGBTQ complete.docx

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Lina Samuel

Dunne, Gillian A. 2009. Opting into Motherhood: Lesbians Blurring the Boundaries and Transforming the Meaning of Parenthood and Kinship.” Pp. 343-366 in Family Patterns Gender Relations 3 Ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press. Ans- • “Late-blooming lesbians find different kind of partnership” (Toronto Star, Sept 2, 2010 L1) • Sexual Fluidity (2008) by Lisa Diamond – “…Debunk the notion that sexual orientation is necessarily stable and consistent thing” – Spontaneous shifts in sexuality can and do occur – Based on a longitudinal study of 79 women over the last 16 years • Family Values: a system of thought developed by socially conservative faith communities that signifies “family values” as straight, conventionally gendered married people with children. • (Taylor and Ristock, 2011: 129) • Compulsory Heterosexuality: heterosexual relationships are the only good and natural ones, and all other kinds of relationships should be suppressed (Taylor and Ristock, 2011: 128) • Underlying Agenda: prescribes specific gender roles • Louis Althusser (1918-1990) – French Marxist Philosopher – Ideological State Apparatus • “social institution that reflects and maintains particular power arrangements, and are enmeshed in our cultural, legal, and economic systems and structures” (Taylor and Ristock Anti-miscegenation” laws in Nazi Germany, Apartheid in South Africa, the United States…where individuals of different races/ethnic backgrounds were prevented from marrying (Taylor and Ristock • Prior to 1969 the relationship had no legal status: – no parenting rights for partner‟s biological children, – no custody rights, – no rights to visit a hospitalized partner, – no pension benefits, no inheritance rights... • Same sex couples more likely to have children if they were married Same sex couples tended to be younger, smaller proportion of seniors • What the research reveals on Children in Gay and Lesbian Families (Arnup, 2005: 196) • Based primarily on American Psychological Literature • 1. parenting skills e
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