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SOC244 - Midterm 2 Test Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Lina Samuel

Lecture 7: Aboriginal Families in Canada ABORIGINAL FAMILIES - Only 4% of CDNs are not immigrants or descendants of immigrants. Only Aboriginals are native to this land - Ontario and BC: the provinces hosting the most Aboriginals HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX - Allows for the comparison of nations – establishes a measure of well-being (level of education, income, life expectancy) - In recent years, CAN has ranked 4 th - Registered natives on reserve = rank 62 , Registered natives both on and off = rank 46 th IMPORTANT ROLES FULFILLED BY THE FAMILY 1) Protects and nourishes the child 2) Passes on language which provides a code for making sense and understanding the world 3) Teaches ways of behaving 4) Instills values and sense of what is important, what is worth protecting and fighting for Native families forced to take on the patriarchal, nuclear form that was characteristic of colonizers - Were originally hunters/gatherers that moved around a lot. Families varied – extended, patriarchal, matrilineal - Mid 1800s: first wave of European settlers – they established themselves as the dominant group THE INDIAN ACT OF 1876 - Powerful lasting effects on the lives of Native people, specifically Native women - If a woman did not marry an Indian, she and her children lost status (cut off from roots) - Patriarchal laws that destroyed matrilineality of many Native families THE RESERVE SYSTEM - established under the terms of the Indian Act - (1) Removed to specific tracts of land (2) Marginalized in the economy (3) Much of the land was inferior - Lowest on the economic and social ladder RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS - Native children were removed from the families and boarded at Christian schools Run by churches and (under-funded) by the Federal govt Inferior education so Natives would not be a threat in the labour market (to young European children who would be entering) Native children suffered physical/emotional abuse at these schools – weren’t raised in the context of their own families ‘Residential School Syndrome’ - Generations of depression, alcoholism, suicide, family breakdown are the result of residential schools THE SIXTIES SCOOP (1951) - This change gave provincial govt responsibility for the welfare of Native children - Native children taken by families in large numbers – ‘cultural genocide’ - Children from Manitoba were not just taken from their families, but from the province itself (adopted out of country to US families) SEXUAL STERILIZATION - 1928: the United Farmers Party of Alberta passed the Sexual Sterilization Act - Goal: sterilizing mental defectives so “bad genes” would not be passed on - Included: individuals who were poor, low SES, and disproportionately high numbers of Metis + First Nations SKIP GENERATION - Natives stereotyped as a ‘colonial project’ - Natives less likely to live in husband/wife families & more likely to live in female-headed families/single mother families - They have little to no capital to pass onto future generations - Skip Generation: no parent generation present in the household - 8% of aboriginal children are in the care of grandparents/other relatives - Custodial elders face substantial financial, emotional, and physical costs which trickle down to their grandchildren Lecture 8: Diversity of Family Life BLACK FAMILIES Gilroy - Scholars wain us envisioning a “single African American experience” - Must examine the history and conditions of contemporary capitalism, and the role of the state - Humanity/slaves are property. Slave trade fueled industrial revolution of Europe - Diversity reflected in differing immigration experiences, regional residence, political views, socio-economic variations, religious beliefs and cultural practices - Slave trade lasted for over 4 centuries Melville Herskovits and E. Franklin Frazier - Labelling of White families as functional/normal allowed for the labelling of non-White families as deviant - Maternal, extended, common-law unions were normal, rates of “illegitimacy” was high - Herskovits: origins of Black family to be found in African cultural heritage - Frazier: origins of Black family rooted in slavery and the plantation system Cultural Ethnocentric Approach - E. Franklin Frazier - Unstable, disorganized - Black family is a consequence of slavery and American culture - The plantation system controlled the stability of the family - Changing social and economic conditions of life in America - Slaves were systematically stripped of their culture/beliefs/heritage Cultural Relativity School - M. Herskovits - Continuation of African cultural forms - slavery did not totally destroy traditional African base - Authentic African cultural patterns found in music, language, housing structure African American Family (Sudarkasa) - Slavery, segregation, urbanization, changing economic conditions/educational opportunities/demographics - Slavery is a highly adaptive institution - Family and household are not the same thing. African family = extended group, living in a larger space which came under attack through social policies around housing. This left women to raise children on their own. - Myth that African-American families are typically female-headed: only 22%. Those that were female-headed held 3-4 generations of women. Black Families in Canada (Calliiste) Split Labour Market Theory - Conflict: How identities are reinforced through the labour market (where are individuals positioned in the labour market?) - Slavery provided a reserve labour army. Blacks were paid less than Whites for the same job. Segmented labour market where primary sector = Whites, and secondary sector = minorities, women - Residentially and socially segregated, stereotypes of Black women, educational system (Eurocentric curriculum), immigration policies, dominant ideologies (devalued Black family form/black women and men as parents & gender roles and gender relations: more egalitarian relationship b/t men and women) Survival Strategies - Women working outside the home - Fictive kin: raising children that aren’t your own, calling people aunt/uncle who aren’t related to you by blood - “Syncretization”(Calliste) - Bloodmothers and othermothers - Prenuptial intercourse: enabled mother to stay w/ child for longer LGBTQ FAMILIES - “Late-blooming lesbians find different kind of partnership” (Toronto Star) - Sexual Fluidity (Lisa Diamond): Debunk the notion that sexual orientation is necessarily stable and consistent thing. Spontaneous hift in sexuality can and do occur. Based on a longitudinal study of 79 women over the last 16 years. - Compulsory Heterosexuality: heterosexual relationships are the only good/natural ones, and all other kinds should be suppressed - Underlying Agenda: prescribes specific gender roles Louis Althusser - Ideological State Apparatus - Social practices/interactions give rise to social institutions which reflects and maintains particular power arrangements, and are enmeshed in our cultural, legal, and economic systems and structures - The dominant ideology masks the exploited relationships that are occurring around us - The family is a key institution that has a great deal of formal and informal regulation - “Anti-mscegenation” laws in Nazi Germany, Apartheid in South Africa, the US...where individuals of different races/ethnic backgrounds were prevented from marrying Prior to 1969 the relationship had no legal status - No parenting rights for partner’s biological children, no custody rights, no rights to visit a hospitalized partner, no pension benefits, no inheritance rights 2001 Census 2006 Census - 45, 345 same sex couples, only 16.5% were married, 53.7% were married men - Same sex couples more likely to have children if they were married - Same sex couples tended to be younger, smaller proportions of seniors (65+) Same-Sex Couples across Canada - In terms of custody trials, women tended to have children from a previous heterosexual marriage - Nexus approach: court had to demonstrate that the parent’s sexual orientation wouldn’t have a negative effect on the child Research on Children in Gay and Lesbian Families (Arnup) - Based primarily on American Psychological Literature 1. Parenting skills essentially the same 2. Lesbian mothers as psychological healthy as their heterosexual counterparts 3. No significant differences found b/t lesbian mothers and heterosexual mothers 4. Gay fathers are caring, loving, capable and committed parents 5. Gay fathers found to be more astute to children’s needs, more nurturing in providing care, and less traditional than heterosexual fathers - Children from gay and lesbian families grow up to be more tolerant of others, greater sensitivity, respect for diversity Issues in Parenting - External conditions: homophobic and transphobic discrimination - Parental decisions on disclosing their identity Children in School – Survey on Homophobia - 2/3 of LGBTQ students feel unsafe in at least one place at their school, over 2/3 reported hearing “that’s so gay”, 1/2 reported being verbally harassed - LGBTQ aging individuals – elderly homes – fear of feeling like they’re back in high school and hiding who they are Lecture 9: Immigrant Families and Immigrant Youth in Canada IMMIGRATION TO CANADA - 1910 – 1919: Canada received up to 1.9 million immigrants - 1920s – 1940s: British Isles and NW Europe made up 72% of immigrants - 1945 – 1966: SE Europe - Mid 1960s – Present: Rise in Asian Immigrants - 1980-2002: 4. 2 million immigrants arrive - (Canadian Citizenship and Immigration 2003) - 2010: CAN permitted 280, 636 permanent residents: growth coming primarily from skilled economic immigrants Population of Canada grew due to: - Increased immigration levels - Baby boom - Low levels of emigration Federal Gov’t introduced a Points System, selected based on: - (1) Basis of education (2) occupational skills (3) knowledge of the official languages - Much more difficult for professional immigrants to transfer their skills to the new country b/c CAN produces their own professionals who already have difficulty finding a job WHERE DO IMMIGRANTS SETTLE? - Early 1900s: settle in rural areas - As CAN began to urbanize, immigration settlement patterns followed - Now: TO, VAN, MTRL, OTT-Gatineau, Calgary (TO and VAN immigrant population is substantial) RACIALIZATION - Due to physical appearance and b/c of the way they live, certain groups are categorized (by the dominant group) as being qualitatively different - Compounded in 2 ways: lower economic status and prestige - 70% new entrance into the labour force are immigrants, 75% of that are racialized individuals - Racialized groups overrepresented in: manufacturing, service sector (even though a lot of them come with university education) - Racialized groups underrepresented in: management positions Feminist Perspective - Multiplicity of oppression. Given expression to the experience of women Anti-Racist Feminist Perspective - Intersection of race, class, gender, and sexuality IMMIGRANTS AND FAMILY - Immigrants have no always had the right to live in a “family context in CAN” b/c of the desire to uphold White standards of liberty and morality Chinese Families - Labour need for work on the railway - 1885: Chinese Immigration Act. $50 head tax which rose to $500 - Exclude people on the basis of ethnicity and sex. Known as Bachelor Society b/c almost exclusively communities of men, wives left at home. The women who did come worked in their husband’s business and were unpaid. - Denied Chinese men their masculinity South Asian Families - 1903 – 1904: about 40 men and 4 women migrated to Victoria/Vancouver - Indenture System: work in a specific plantation for the length of your life (bonded relation) - 1907 – 1908: just over 5000 men (almost all in BC) - After railroad was completed, there was a surplus of workers and Chinese seen as threat to “white labour” - 1910: $200 head tax - Continuous Journey: meant that you had to board a boat from India and make one continuous journey to CAN (if it stopped somewhere else you weren’t granted access to CAN). Used to deter South Asians from coming into CAN b/c one continuous journey is difficult. - 1962 Immigration Regulations Radhakrishnan: the Indian immigrant is reborn as an “ethnic minority American citizen” - (1) Immigrant sheds all previous culture to fit into dominant culture (2) Goes back to his/her roots and pulls some of the things that are important (3) merging of 2 ethnicities Japanese Families - 1907: self-regulation immigration - Anti-Japanese sentiments following bombing of Pearl Harbour - Mass evacuations of JAP took place. Removed from coastal areas of BC into interior makeshift housing, which broke JAP families - Family authority removed, socialization process destroyed - assimilation to dominant culture, “outmarry” to someone of dominant class - State actively prevented formation of families. Immigration policies have had a big impact on this. DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS 1) Amalgamation: A+B+C=D. Majority and minority group combine and form new group (e.g. intermarriage) 2) Assimilation: A+B+C=A. Individuals leave behind their ethnic markers and become part of new culture 3) Segregation: Physical separation of groups (e.g. Apartheid in South Africa) 4) Multiculturalism (pluralist society): A+B+C=A+B+C. Subordinate groups do not have to dismiss their ethnic markers. Pluralism is based on mutual respect. YOUTH CULTURE AND IMMIGRANT YOUTH Canadian Youth Culture (Wilson & Jette) - Youth: a stage b/t childhood and adulthood that is characterized by very “distinct physical, psychological, and social developments” - Shifts from the Medieval period to the Industrial period - Shifts from agricultural lifestyle to a more industrial lifestyle - Shift from home-based work to factory work (seen as threat to adults), which coincided w/ humanitarian groups opposed to child labour - Rise of compulsory education - After WWII that there was a rise in the teen market (15-19) and ties b/t business, advertising, and teen consumption - Tween market (9-14): purchasing power is very high, determine family purchasing patterns Frankfurt School of Social Research - Control through culture - Individual identity created through consumption of goods. Youth is vulnerable to these deceptions. Self-fulfillment through external rather than internal. - “Cultural industry creates a homogenous culture of social dupes who, in being fascinated by and enamoured w/ elements of popular culture such as Hollywood film and consumer items, have been lulled into an uncritical acceptance of present conditions” Antonio Gramsci - Studied ways in which elites maintain privileged status. Mass media plays a large role. - Hegemony: dominant groups maintain their power by getting people to consent to their ideology, rather than oppressing those people - Counter-hegemony: the ways in which people resist Case Study: Rave Culture - Rave culture: Seen as a form of resistance to mainstream culture or a weekend escape - Reflects both a movement that is empowering as well as marginalizing - This resistance encompasses the mainstream culture as well as global tyranny SECOND GENERATION SOUTH ASIAN YOUTH CULTURE Of Silk Saris and Mini Skirts (Amita Handa) - Traditional culture clash theories weak: (1) treat the competing cultures as equal (2) ignores presence of racism within society (3) - Rather she looks at how race and gender position women with the Diaspora. - Cartographies of Diaspora - Contesting Identities (Brah): (1) points to relationship b/t ethnicity, culture and identity (2) appreciation of colonial history (3) power hierarchies Identity (Stuart Hall) - Enlightenment Subject: fully centered, has a core, unified - Sociological Subject: dependent on others, interaction, reflecting the changing society, always relational - Post-modern Subject: in flux and transforming, no fixed core, multiple subject positionings, “who we are isn’t who we have been but who we could be and how we have been represented” - Ethnic identities are not fixed or natural. Socially constructed and imagined. - “Cultures are never static; they evolve through history” - Youth lying and deceptions are a coping strategy – a need to maintain a good image to parents and family, trapped by expectations Lecture 10: The Breaking of Families – Violence, Power, and Divorce WOMAN ABUSE - More likely to be abused by a family member, rather than a stranger - Physical and psychological abuse are very much interconnected - Woman Abuse: Misuse of power against a woman, resulting in a loss of dignity, control, and safety as well as a feeling of powerlessness and entrapment - Domestic Violence: Misuse of power and control by one person over another who are or have been in an intimate relationship - Child Abuse: acts of commission or omission by those entrusted w/ the care and nurturing of the child, which function to deny the child the reasonable opportunity to develop his/her potential as a human being Confronting Violence in Women’s Lives – Gartner, Dawson, Crawford - Intimate femicide - Sex Role theorists: boys are socialized to be tough and powerful - Evolutionary theorists: violence is an adaptive strategy for males facing the loss of status and control over their partners - Resources theorists: violence as a resource to assert control when all other resources have been exhausted - General Systems theorists: society does not adequately sanction violence, so the rewards outweigh the costs for perpetrators - Male Sexual Proprietariness: men tend to think of women as sexual and reproductive property that they can own and exchange - Risk markers: separation/estrangement/common-law, African Americans (US), Aboriginals (CAN), male unemployment, low income Theories of Violence against Women – Mavis Morton - Micro: focus on the individual (e.g. personality, mental illness) - Meso: social groups (e.g. the learning patterns growing up in a certain environment) - Macro: larger, social, political, and economic factors (e.g. patriarchy – a sex or gender system in which men dominate; masculine traits are valued) History of Family Violence - Cultural, social acceptance of violence within the family. Violence has been “normalized” and become part of the family unit. - E.g. abuse of children seen as a parent’s right to discipline their children Theories of Wife Abuse 1) Economic Exclusion/Male Peer Support Model - Economic variables and its link to violence. As economy expands, men feel isolated & unable to fu
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