Family Diversity aboriginals,afro-canadian,south asian,chinese,japanese.docx

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14 Apr 2012
Soc244 exam review
Family Diversity:
Changes in immigration policy and its impact on the family:
1) Aboriginal Families & Colonialism:
(Indian act 1876, residential schools, sixties scoop, sexual sterilization)
The family fulfills important roles
o Protect and nourish child
o Pass on language which provides a code for making sense and understanding the world
o Teaches ways of behaving
o Instills values & sense of what is important and what is worth fighting or protecting
The hunter gatherers moved from location to location
The women of the 6 nations had a substantial amount of power
The Europeans however imposed their laws and values on the native families
Enforced to take on a nuclear family and patrilineal family
Forced to take on aspects of family forms that were not inherent to them
As a consequence of colonialism the Europeans brought diseases
o Tuberculosis
o Small pox
The Europeans also introduced alcohol to the Aboriginals which in turn destroyed the
Effects of colonialism :
1) The Indian Act 1876
Powerful piece of legislation which had a profound effect on native people
Lasting effect on their lives
Deprived the aboriginals
Controlled and dictated their lives
o Under the Indian act a woman who married a non-aboriginal man was stripped of her
o Her and her children no longer considered aboriginal
o Denied her roots and had no place on the reserve
o Patriarchal laws destroyed matrilineal ones
o Women cut off by her roots if her marriage ended
2) The Reserve System
Was established under the terms of the 1876 Indian act
Removed to specific tracts of land
Land was deemed inferior
Nothing was able to grow on these lands ; infertile lands
The Canadian government affectively condemned Indians to occupy the lowest of the social
Marginalized in the economy
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Soc244 exam review
3) Residential Schools
Intended to assimilate Aboriginals to European culture
Cultural genocide and ethnocide ; killing off one culture
Native children were removed from their families and boarded at Christian schools
Run by churches and under funded by the federal government
Inferior education so natives would not be viewed as a treat to labour market
Many children suffered emotional 7 sexual abuse
Generation of children not raised in the context of their families; did not have family
The Canadian govt through its policies denied native people the right to have a family
Residential school syndrome
o generations of depression alcoholism, suicide, and family breakdown are the legacy of
such experiences & are described as the residential school syndrome
4) The sixties scoop 1951
Native Children and the Child Welfare System
= It refers to the Canadian practice, beginning in the 1960s and continuing until the late 1980s,
of apprehending unusually high numbers of children of Aboriginal peoples in Canada and
fostering or adopting them out, usually into white families
This change gave the provincial govt responsibility for the welfare of native children
Native children taken from families increased in its numbers
Native children from manitoba not just taken from their families but from province itself
Cultural genocide; systematice and routine
Children stacked in foster homes like cars waiting for the right buyers
Traumatic and irreversible event
5) Sexual sterilization
1928 the united farmers party of alberta passed the sexual sterilization act
Assumption of who had good genes and who had bad ones
Used on aboriginals the poor and immigrants
Disproportionately high numbers of metis and first nations
Poverty huge contributor to ill health
One third of natives income came from the govt transfers
Poverty also con tributes to low marriage rates
High levels of single parent amongst natives
Only one sixth of natives have access to drinking water
Little to no capital to pass down to their children
6) Skip generation
o no parent present in household; just a child and a grandparent
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