SOC244H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Life Satisfaction, Parenting Styles, Sibling Relationship

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2 Aug 2016
Family Life Courses
Life course perspective in family studies
Life course perspective
Childhood and parenting
Middle years
Old age and aging
Duvall, E. M. (1957). Family Development.
Stage 1: Married couples (without children)
Stage 2: Childbearing families (oldest child, birth-30 months)
Stage 3: Families with pre-school children (oldest child, 2.5-6years)
Stage 4: Families with schoolchildren (oldest child, 6-13 years)
Stage 5: Families with teenagers (oldest child, 13-20 years)
Stage 6: Families as launching centers (first child gone to last child leaving
Stage 7: Middle-age parents (“empty nest” to retirement)
Stage 8: Aging family members (retirement to death of both spouses)
Five basic themes of the life course perspective:
the importance of multiple temporal contexts;
social-structural context;
diachronic process and change;
heterogeneity and
multidisciplinary assessment.
A life course perspective emphasizes the importance of time, context,
process, and meaning on human development and family life.
Time influences relationships in three ways
Life experiences influence relationships.
Family events and family transitions influence individuals and
Historical time -- events in the broader social context -- influence roles
and values.
Childhood and parenting
The term, “childhood” is generally recognised as a socially constructed
phenomenon (Arthuretal., 2005; Cannella, 2005; Sorin & Galloway, 2005).
Chronologically, childhood has been variously described as: the period from
birth to 6 or 7, when the child can articulate clearly; birth to when the child
can reproduce; birth to when the child can work; and birth to when the child
can live independently of the parents (Branscombe et al., 2000).
According to the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (1989),
childhood spans birth to the age of 18.
Images of Childhood
Children as natural innocents
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Children as monsters
Children as miniature adults
Children as economic assets
Parenthood: The Varieties of Experience
Premature Births and Low Birth Rates
Childhood Poverty
Young Parents: Teen Pregnancies
Difficulties for the Parent
Difficulties for the Child
Single Parents: Unmarried & Divorced
Unmarried Parents
Divorced Parents
Divorced mothers
Divorced fathers
Parenthood: The Varieties of Experience
Older Parents
Trends in Delayed Childbearing
Minority Parents
Nontraditional Parents: Single Fathers, Relatives, & Gays & Lesbians
Single Fathers
Grandparents & Other Relatives
Gays & Lesbians
Parenthood: The Varieties of Experience
Working Parents
Career-Parenting Conflict
Family-Oriented Workplace Policies
Child-Care Services
Making Time for Children
Social complexities of raising children
Russell Peters - Beating Your Children (8 minutes)
5 Gay Parenting Myths | What the Stuff?! (5 minutes)
Published on Feb 20, 2016
Opponents of gay marriage and adoption often frame their criticisms in
terms of what's best for children. Allowing lesbian, gay, bisexual and
transgender (LGBT) couples to raise boys and girls, they may attest,
endangers healthy child development in myriad ways. So what’s the truth?
Parenting styles
Authoritative – Parents who are both demanding and responsive. They
impart clear standards for their children’s conduct. They are assertive, but
not intrusive or restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive rather
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than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially
responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative.
Parenting styles
Authoritarian – Parents who are demanding and directive, but not
responsive. They are obedience and status-oriented, expecting their orders
to be obeyed without explanation. They provide an orderly environment and
a clear set of regulations, monitoring their children’s activities carefully.
Parenting styles
Permissive – Nondirective parents, who are more responsive than they are
demanding. They are lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow
considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation.
Parenting styles
Rejecting-neglecting – Disengaged parents who are neither demanding, nor
responsive. They do not structure and monitor their children’s behavior, and
are not supportive. They may be actively rejecting or neglect their child-
rearing responsibilities altogether.
Gender and Parenthood
Mothering is instinctual?
History: Wet nursery, breastfeeding
Father’s involvement in childrearing
Men can be effective “mothers” (Risman 1989)
Middle years
Change and Diversity of Mid-life Families
Empty nest and cluttered nest
Middle age
Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset
of old age. Various attempts have been made to define this age, which is
around the third quarter of the average life span of human beings.
According to Collins Dictionary, this is "... usually considered to occur
approximately between the ages of 40 and 60".
The OED gives a similar definition but with a later start point "... the period
between youth and old age, about 45 to 60".
The US Census lists middle age as including both the age categories 35 to 44
and 45 to 54, while Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994, a German-American
developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst) sees it ending a little later
and defines middle adulthood as between 40 and 65.
Change and Diversity of Mid-life Families
Changing demographics
Among women born in 1840, for example, last births occurred at age 40, and
the women died, on average, at age 62 (Gee, 1990a). Men, typically, did not
live long enough to see their last child reach adulthood.
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