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SOCA01- textbooknotes-midterm

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Ungar, Shelly

Sociological Compass Textbook notes - Emile Durkheim: o Functionalism o Demonstrated suicide is not just individual act, but social forces influence it o Suicide depends on :  Social solidarity – degree of group with similar values/beliefs. Intensity and frequency of their interaction - Social Structures – stable patterns of social relations o Microstructures- patterns in intimate social structures(family, friends) o Macrostructures- social relations outside and above your circle (classes, bureaucracies) o Global Structures- outside and above national level. (worldwide travel, economic relationships between countries) o Sociological Imagination- quality of mind to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures Origins of Sociological Imagination 1. Scientific Revolution o In 1550 o Conclusions must be based on sound evidence 2. Democratic Evolution o In 1750 o People are responsible for organizing society- human intervention can solve social problems 3. Industrial Revolution o Most important o Large scale application of science and technology to industrial processes Theory, Research and Values - Auguste Comte – ‘Sociology’ – tried to base study in scientific foundations o Never conducted research - Herbert Spencer – second founder of ‘ Sociology’ o Influenced by Charles Darwin o His ideas termed: Social Darwinism – Barbaric societies to become civilized- societies must evolve - Theories- Explanations for some aspect of social life that state how/why certain facts are related - Research- Systematically observing reality to asses validity of a theory - Values- Ideas about what is good/bad, right/wrong Sociological Theory and Theorists Functionalism - Durkheim - Stress stable patterns of social relations/ structure - How social structures maintain social stability - Social structures based on shared values - Re-establishing equilibrium will solve social problems - Manifest functions – visible, intended effects of social structures - Latent functions- unintended, less obvious - Dysfunctional – create social instability, disruptive Conflict Theory - Karl Marx o Class conflict – struggle between classes to resist and overcome other classes - Conflict in social life - Focuses on large macro level structures. Major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some, and change in others - Max Weber o Noted that class conflict is not the only driving force in history –religion and politics Symbolic Interactionism Weber, Mead and Goffman - Weber argued that early capitalist was caused by religious beliefs- not just economy o Protestant Ethic – Belief that religious doubts can be reduced and a state of grace ensured o Focused on the emotional motives of people, and the meanings attached to things - Herbert Mead – individuals sense of self is formed by interaction with people o Symbolic Interactionism – focuses on interaction in micro level social settings, emphasizes adequate explanation of social behavior requires understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances - Erving Goffman- influential symbolic integrationists o Analyzed how people present themselves in the best light Social Constructionism - Social constructionism- argues that natural/innate features of life are sustained by social processes that vary. - Queer Theory- Sexual identity are so variable that ‘gay’ and ‘lesbian’ do not capture the sexual instability of many people - Feminist Theory- argues that patriarchy is important as class inequality opportunity-wise. Male dominated is caused by power and social convention o Harriet Martinaeu – first female sociologist. Leading advocate of voting rights for women Sociological Compass - Post-industrial Revolution – technology driven shift from manufacturing to service, and consequences for all human activities - Globalization- process of formerly separate economies, states and cultures become tied together, and are aware of their growing independence Equality of Opportunity Constraint Freedom Inequality of Opportunity How Sociologist do Research Levels of Experience - Concrete Experience- obtained by seeing/touching/smelling/hearing o Percepts- smallest bits of concrete experience o Patterns- collection of related percepts - Abstract Experience- imaginary world of the mind o Concepts- abstract terms, when linked together form propositions. o Conceptualization – naming process of concepts o Propositions- ideas that result from finding the relationship between concepts Research Cycle 1. Question 2. Review existing literature 3. Select method 4. Collect Data 5. Analyze Data 6. Report Method - Ethical Considerations –mindful of the participant Measuring Variables - Operationalization- process of translating concepts to variables and concepts - Variable- measure with one or more value/score - Hypothesis- testable form of a proposition - Randomization- experiment involves assigning each individual by chance to the group that will be exposed/will not be exposed. - Dependent Variable- presumed ‘effect’ in cause and effect relationship - Independent Variable- presumed ‘cause’ - Reliability – degree of reproducibility - Validity- if it measures what it was supposed to - Contingency Table- crosses classification of at least 2 variables that allows you to see how variables are associated - Cont
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