Soc244- lc 6 nov 1
- Common bong that emerges from slavery**
- Poor food, inadequate food, they were thrown off the ship – detined to the new world – south American- plantations of Brazil for eg.
- Colony of upper canda was the first colonoy to ablish slavery in 1763
- Abolished in the US 30 years after it was ended.
- Tended to focus on the deviation of the black family from the norms of white family – assumption tht there is sort of a cathology – that
there is something wrong with them. Much of our undestnading of familiyes is based on 1950s functionalist families.
- - because there was one assumption tht one family formed right – then other families – there are something wrong with them, they
have to change to fit into that family mode.
- -early studies of the black family in the US – grounded in linear type of thinking.
- Melville – studying black families – American anthropologist, faser- American sociologist – earliest to look at the black fmailies –
extensive African families – maternal, existed in extended family settings, rates of legitimiacy tended to be higher.
- - for hersovits: African cultural patterns- familys were created. For frazier this wasn’t true. – bothlook at the contemporary form of
family. Frazer – the plantation system was responsible for the form of the family.
- Things like language, forms of techonology – those tended to vary – the scale and intesnsity of African tension really tendd to vary.
- - history of tales being told, songs continued, but he does acknowledge little African art form was retained because the salves had no
leisure time. –frazer. So their opporutinites where very little= slavery played an intrical role in the contemporary family form.
- Frazer: they were stripped of their heritage, American slavery dissolved the bonds of sympathy of African men, they had to adtop new
language, labor and take over how imperfectly the amreican environment was. Their children forgot the memeories that were passed on
to them – they developed different behaviours that were inharmony of the world. There is disconnect with those type of connection.
Every stage of this forced immigration – this emptyniess and cultural vacuum was filled by adopting , filling in the white ideologies.
Controled by the master/ plantation order.
- - family composition continually disrupted by the same of memebrs – the reducution of family unit to the mother and the dependent
- Things such as civil war, emancipation – disrupted the patternings of black family.
- - changing and social and economic conditions.
- The matter of resistance- the ways in which new family forms emerge- the way ppl were able to exist despite the heavy disfynctioning
that resulted in terms of the black plantation system. - -saw the black fmalies as eviant and in need of fixing.
- Dawdson – 2 approaches : cultural ethnocentric shcoool – grounded that there is something unstable of the family form- needs to be
fixed in some way – proponent of particular model –Frazer. He writes if the culture of African slaves was destroyed it is hopeless to
expect that the evoltution of the black family – if black family would fail to produce and offspring – it would not exist – it would break up
the family – the family form is coming out of this plantation and the history of slavery in America.
- 2: cultural relativity school- du bois – much of black life is a cointunation of black continual forms. – however they agree that cultural
orientation encourage a particular type of family the maintenance and preservation of certain pfmaily forms – are oppressed upon
regimes in amreican society.
- Herskovits: was the first to notice similiatiares between these diff families- similar in music, ways of healing, that can be traced to US and
braczil and west indies.
- From reading: Sudarkasa – author
- - detailed examination of black American families – this debate between cultural relativism and ethnocentirsim – ignoes specific
socioeconomic conditions that are prevalent today in the US. You cannot express only African families by comparing other black families
to them and you cant forget the slave also.
- Also families are highly adpatiive institutions, if it is not adaptive then this institution fails.
o So she says yo have to look at the speicifc historical conditions - which allow for a particular family form, segreatiion, movement
of low wage workers to etc, change in demographic, and change of housing options, social condtions which had lead to
increasing female headed households. Esp the two generation household.
- It was not uncommon for women to be raigin thei r children and grand children – the family would have 3 or 4 generations of family – it
can also have extended laterally to include divorced borthers nad sister- regardless of the specific family form – its this type of extended
family settings that’s come under attack with current change through the states restriced social policies – the multi generational female
head household of the 1950s no longer possible **** very important.
- - so we have the same family living in the same household .So this once support, women had they don’t have any more- most young
single mothers then had a great support from their family. The break up of the multigenerational fmailiy broke up many families – it had
lead to conseuqneces on the contemporary family. It takes many adults to raise a child.
- When they lived with these adults, they could count on other family members- but now they could not.
- Even if with these relatives that continue to playa supportive role – the fact that they live in different places they don’t have the same
authority and control that the family undergoes. This is a very didffernt type of household. – the breakup of the multigenerational
household has had a great impact on the black family. - One of the key thigns she spushigng is the transformation of social policy –that encourages the biringing together of that
Calliste- nova scotia professor. –
Talks about the history of black families in nova scotia. In Canada particual,r writes that black fmailies have been here for over 300 eyars and her
writing focuses on the intervconeections of race, class, gneders, and examines her own culture. This positiong has an impact on the amily form.
Historically, they were allowed into Canada as slaves and laboueres, similar to siasns – brought into do very dangerous work , eg railways, steel
plants, women as domestics, all the reproduvtice nad domestic labour.
- 1941, base don research of Harold potter- she said that most of the black workforce worked as domestics.
- - black workers prodivded a reserve army of labour** and were employed in the split labour market theory* - where workers are divided
particular where ethnic minroty workers are payed less for doing the same work.
Split labour market theory –focuses on sthe social sturcutre labor that keep individuals from pariticapting fully in the labour market. So low
wage workers of one racial minority. Hgih wage – of another ethnic minroty are going to be in conflict for another particular job – high wage
workers will then have increasing sentiments. – conflict over a particualra low wage job. –