Soc 232 – quiz 5
Page 371 – 381, 383- 412
Will the Center Hold? 1963- 1979
60s – many things occurred, such as kennedy assassination, civil rights movement, the Black power
- The united states was the center of the world during this time
- Will the center hold – this line was taken from William Butler Yeats, ―The second coming‖
- - Vietnam disturbed the west
- - people said, we had to destroy it to save it – when they were talking about Vietnam
- To many people American seemed to be the Truth.
- The failure of the US in Vietnam and collapse of European colonial system introducted the OPEC
– Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – this was the oil crisis
- The world lost the UNITED STATES AS THE CENTer.
- Rise of black power in 1966 women were seen as a threat to men and men didn‘t want them to
rise in power
- The government, family and university – became vectors of discontent intersecting where the
center could have been
- Between 1963 – 68 everything changed in the world – blacks are seen as ‗us‘, womens
movements civil rights, malcom x, etc.
- WAR – women of the American revolution
- SCUM – society for cutting up men
- 1969 first historica protest of gays and lesbians in New York
- Students were protesting against universities - eg, may 4 1970 Kent State university – 4 students
killed, using bombs
- The prace of thinking about professional social theorists with the concrete notions of practical
political people were indeed linked at this time
- Some people thought this change was occurring because they believed the modern culture had a
limit – absence of the center
- These social theorists were able to rethink about the world
- Black power – written by CLR James
- These social theorists believed in the basic assumptions of modern culture – however they were
THE EXPERIMENTS AT RENEWAL AND RECONSTRUCTION
John Kenneth Galbraith – Change and the Planning System (1967)
Bio: Ontario Canada, economist he was not caught in the Golden Age – he was a clever writer.
Reading: we have a planned economy – it comes from the great producing organization which
reaches forward to control the markets that it is presumed to serve and bend to the customer and
- Technology and organization shape society and economy - He says there are visible movements starting to arise but they have not yet gained consensus
- Looks for prospects for liberty – the thing that warns dangers in this association of economic and
public power is sound – the problem is not about the freedom of the businessman – it lies in the
belief to the needs of the planning system – the state and the planning system are partners – it will
not be freedom.
Website: With searing wit and incisive commentary, John Kenneth Galbraith redefined America's
perception of itself in The New Industrial State, one of his landmark works. The United States is
no longer a free-enterprise society, Galbraith argues, but a structured state controlled by the
largest companies. Advertising is the means by which these companies manage demand and
create consumer "need" where none previously existed. Multinational corporations are the
continuation of this power system on an international level. The goal of these companies is not
the betterment of society, but immortality through an uninterrupted stream of earnings.
Jurgen Habermas – Emacipatory Knowledge (1968)
Bio: considered heir to the tradition of philosophically based critical social theiry in the Frankfurt
tradition – the selection illustrates Habermas theoretical debt to the great critical theorists Adorno
and Horkheimer and represents the basis for his theory of communicative competence that
evolved over the years. IT suggests that knowledge is never pure, always founded in universal
human interested of which emancipation is the most fundamental.
The Emancipatory domain identifies 'self-knowledge' or self-reflection. This involves 'interest in
the way one's history and biography has expressed itself in the way one sees oneself, one's roles
and social expectations. Emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces
which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as
beyond human control (a.k.a.'reification'). Insights gained through critical self-awareness are
emancipatory in the sense that at least one can recognize the correct reasons for his or her
problems.' Knowledge is gained by self-emancipation through reflection leading to a transformed
consciousness or 'perspective transformation'. Examples of critical sciences include feminist
theory, psychoanalysis and the critique of ideology, according to Habermas.
Reading: talks about the illusion of pure theory – science is unanswering – false consciousness
has a protective function.
Jurgen Habermas (1970) – Social Analysis and Communicative Competence
1. Reading: Ideal speech situation
2. Symmetries among parties to conversation
3. Truth : everything subject to being "thematized"
4. Freedom : mutuality of unimpaired self-representation
5. Justice: complementary expectations
6. Ideal speech situation (pure intersubjectivity) as ideal type (388.5)
7. Communicative competence — mastery of capacities necessary for ideal speech situation (388.6)
8. "One must be able to demonstrate the deformations of pure intersubjectivity which are induced by
the social structure on the basis of asymmetries in the performance of dialogue rules" (388.7). 9. How to use theory of communicative competence as a social theory (389.4). Treat ideal type of
social action as one in which motives and meanings and intentions are openly communicated.
o "The greater the share of prelinguistically fixed motivations which cannot be freely
converted in public communication, the greater the deviance from the model of pure
communicative action" (389.6)
The modern world- system (1976) - Immanuel Wallerstein
Wallerstein claims there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic
exchange relationships — i.e., a "world-economy" or "world-system" in which the "dichotomy
of capital and labor" and the endless "accumulation of capital" by competing agents This
approach is known as the World Systems Theory.
Wallerstein locates the origin of the "modern world-system" in 16th-century Western Europe and
the Americas. An initially only slight advance in capital accumulation in Britain, the Dutch
Republic and France, due to specific political circumstances at the end of the period
of feudalism, set in motion a process of gradual expansion. As a result only one global network
or system of economic exchange exists. By the 19th century, virtually every area on earth was
incorporated into the capitalist world-economy. EVERYBODY TOOK ON CAPITALISM
The capitalist world-system is far from homogeneous in cultural, political and economic terms
— instead characterized by fundamental differences in social development, accumulation of
political power and capital. Contrary to affirmative theories ofmodernization and capitalism,
Wallerstein does not conceive of these differences as mere residues or irregularities that can and
will be overcome as the system evolves.
A lasting division of the world in core, semi-periphery and periphery is an inherent feature of the
world-system. Areas which have so far remained outside the reach of the world-system enter it at
the stage of 'periphery'. There is a fundamental and institutionally stabilized 'division of labor'
between core and periphery: while the core has a high level of technological development and
manufactures complex products, the role of the periphery is to supply raw materials, agricultural
products and cheap labor for the expanding agents of the core. Economic exchange between core
and periphery takes place on unequal terms: the periphery is forced to sell its products at low
prices but has to buy the core's products at comparatively high prices. This unequal state which
once established tends to stabilize itself due to inherent, quasi-deterministic constraints. The
statuses of core and periphery are not exclusive and fixed geographically; instead they are
relative to each other: there is a zone called 'semi-periphery' which acts as a periphery to the core
and a core to the periphery. One effect of the expansion of the world-system is the commodification of things, including
human labor. Natural resources, land, labor and human relationships are gradually being stripped
peter berger - society as a human product
The human organism lacks the necessary biological means to provide stability for human
conduct. Human existence, if it were thrown back on its organismic resources by themselves,
would be existence in some sort of chaos. Such chaos is, however, empirically unavailable, even
though one may theoretically conceive of it. Empirically, human existence takes place in a
context of order, direction, stability. The question then arises: From what does the empirically
existing stability of human order derive? An answer may be given on two levels. One may first
point to the obvious fact that a given social order precedes any individual organismic
development. That is, world-openness, while intrinsic to man's biological