STUDY GUIDE TEST 1
- Broad definition: detain or arrest a person SOLEY on the basis of their ethnic background or race
- Narrow definition: The use of race or ethnicity along with other factors, such as suspicious behaviour.
- Profiling has been advocated in order to target investigative efforts, but bit as a reason for final decisions, such as to prove guilt in a
criminal proceeding or to deny persons admission to Canada.
- E.g. American racial profiling such as officer stop a vehicle for traffic reasons and search the persons car for DRUGS b/c of being black or
- E.g. Africans stopped and are subject to higher scrutiny at the Pearson airport.
- E.g. profiling at the border, with respect to the degree of scrutiny that travelers be they citizens, or when they enter Canada.
- E.g. profiling by security officers as they board domestic international flights.
- Individuals should not be judged on the basis of presumed group characteristics, but rather on the basis of their individual traits.
- Counter racial profiling by searching everybody you are comforting the ones that are singled out although very costly. Ensure that
terrorism is born by everyone not just a specific race.
PURPOSE: to decrease inequalities in income created by capitalism, and to redistribute wealth and resources
- Universal Programs (health care)
- Social Insurance Programs (employment)
- Targeted (Selective) Programs (“welfare”)
- Compensation Programs (land claims)
- Social Investment Programs (job training)
A political, legal & administrative unit that
- Claims to exercise final authority over a specific territory (nation, nation-states system)
- Monopolizes the legitimate use of force to enforce decisions and keep the peace (police, army), and
- Is governed by authorities with institutionalized powers (elected representatives, non-elected Senate)
Who has the power?
- The relationship between the ruled and the rulers in terms of how authority is divided, power is distributed, and valued resources
allocated within a particular jurisdiction.
- Durkheim (collective conscience; agree)
- Marx (hegemony, ideological domination)
- Foucault (discipline, self-governance, surveillance and normalization)
- In good economic times, and in bad
- Canada is in top 10 wealthiest nations (#9)
- Surplus in national budget for almost a decade
And yet ........
- The income gap between the rich and the poor is greater than it was 30 years ago, and it’s widening, and it’s becoming entrenched as
permanent during good and bad economic times, since the 1980s)
- Structures and dynamic processes of inequality among groups in society which, over time,
- Structure access to critical resources
- determine the quality of membership in society, and
- Produce and reproduce a complex of unequal outcomes (i.e., social inequality)
Social Exclusion: Four Dimensions (processes)
1. From civil society (legal or institutional exclusion, based on „citizenship‟)
2. Failure to provide for needs of particular groups (e.g., disabilities accommodations, income security)
3. From social production; denial of opportunities to participate in society
4. Economic exclusion; unequal access to normal forms of social consumption
Arenas of social exclusion: “Cumulative effect”
- Public sector: healthcare, schools/education, welfare, pensions, childcare, transportation
- Private sector: Jobs, housing, food security
- Neighbourhoods: housing stock, access to public services, over-policing, resources
- Political representation: governments, states, elections, voting - Social/cultural: space, movement, activities
The growing racialisation of the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada (outcomes)
- Persistent income gap
- Above average poverty levels
- High unemployment levels
- High underemployment levels
- Overrepresented in low-income jobs/sectors (part-time, temp, home-work, non-union)
- Underrepresented in high-income jobs/sectors(managerial, professional, unionized jobs)
- social exclusion is an expression of unequal relations of power among groups in society, which then determine unequal access to
economic, social, political and cultu